Human Development and Learning Theories

Every generation has their own physiological innovations according to psychologist such as Bandura, Piaget, Kohlberg, and Maslow. Bandura is convinced that behavior is dependant on the monkey see, monkey do theory. Piaget's feels that everyone goes through a developmental process. Kohlberg is convinced in moral development and they're broken down into periods like Piaget. Maslow thinks in his hierarchy of needs, every individual must me one step before progressing to the next.

Rationale

Upon completion of this artifact I hope to gain knowledge about how different psychologist ideas work. I would like to have a better understanding on the several stages a child will proceed through within a class. Using this method I believe I am in a position to understand students in my own school room better. I am inclined to most probably to different psychologists' ideas and based on my research I am going to finish up agreeing with possibly a couple of theorist. I believe this artifact is significant because it is important to comprehend and be open to different process student's will go through. A teacher needs to be aware what is going on within the class.

Human Development and Learning

Every generation has their own physiological improvements regarding to psychologist such as Bandura, Piaget, Kohlberg, and Maslow. The term cognitive is utilized by psychologist to refer to "thought" (Huffman, 2007). The cognitive emphasis continues today and it is the basis for numerous methods to learning. A couple of four different methods to cognitive development sociable cognitive, cognitive information-processing, cognitive constructivist, and communal constructivist. All of which is covered by each one of these psychologist.

The sociable cognitive approach stresses how behavior, environment, and person (cognitive) factors interact to influencing learning. Albert Bandura was the creator of this theory. Bandura is usually to be considered a "dad" of the cognitive movements. He presumed that behaviorism targets parameters we can see, solution, and manipulate. "Observational learning is also known as imitation or modeling. " (Boerre, 2006). While doing his experimental method, his standard treatment was to manipulate on variable and assess its effect on another adjustable. Bandura started to examine the aggression in children. "His investigations exhibited how much individuals behavior is learned through imitating another individual who is observed acquiring some kind of praise or encouragement for a habit, " ("Motivation, " 2009). Bandura commenced to look at personality as an conversation among the environment, behavior, and the person's psychological operations. The mental process includes our ability as people to obtain entertainment images in our minds and dialect.

A popular research that Bandura is known for is the "bobo doll studies". A bobo doll is an inflatable, egg molded doll with weight on the bottom that makes it bob back up when it's hit. Within the bobo doll study he manufactured from a film of one of his students defeating up a bobo doll. His learner punched the bobo doll, shouted "sockeroo, " kicked it, sat on it, struck it with a little hammer, and shouted many competitive phrases. Bandura taped this period with his student and revealed the film to a group of kindergarteners. After showing the tape to the kindergarteners, the kids were sent out to experience in the play room where there is a bobo doll and small hammers. His research went as predicted; the children started out beating in the bobo doll. They punched it, shouted "sockeroo, " kicked it, sat on it and hit it with the hammer. They imitated Bandura's student's patterns to the "T!" Bandura had a large volume of variations on this study. The model was compensated or punished; kids were rewarded for their imitations. As he progressed his analysis he sent the kids into another room with a genuine clown (one that looked exactly like the bobo doll), he found the kids punching, reaching, kicking, and shouting at him.

All these variants allowed Bandura to come up with steps involved in the modeling process, attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. Inside the attention stage, one tends to cannot learn much by observation unless they are really paying attention. Bandura began to realize the result the television got on kids. On the retention stage, you must be able to wthhold the information you have taken notice of. In the duplication stage you are translating the images or explanation into actual tendencies. Finally, there's the inspiration stage, all of this won't have finished unless you're motivated to do it. Bandura has pointed out a couple of motives like previous reinforcment (traditional behaviorism), promised reinforcement (imagined incentives), and vicarious encouragement (discovering and recalling the strengthened model). As most things motivations can be both positive and negative. The negative motivations are earlier punishment, promised punishments (dangers), and vicarious consequence. Bandura says that consequence in whatever form can not work as well as support and, sometimes can "backfire" on us.

Albert Bandura combines both behavioral and cognitive philosophies to form this theory of modeling (observational learning). Bandura believes that humans are able to control their patterns through an activity known as self regulation. This technique will involve three steps, self observation humans look at themselves and their habit and keep track of their actions, view, human compare these observations with expectations, self response, after judging himself/herself the person does well in comparison with the set standards, he/she will give him/her home a worthwhile self-response.

Jean Piaget studied the introduction of children's understanding, through observing them and hearing them as they worked on exercises he arranged. He thought that children's thinking will not develop entirely effortlessly; instead there are certain points of which it moves into completely new areas and functions. Piaget's theory recognizes four developmental stages and operations that children improvement through them, sensormotor (birth to two years old). At this time the child can differentiate self from objects; they could recognize home as agent of action and commenced to do something intentionally. For instance they tremble a rattle to make a noise. The next stage is preoperational (two years to seven years old). At this stage the child discovers to use vocabulary and to signify things by images and words. Preoperational level can be split up into two sub phases, symbolic function and intuitive thought. The symbolic function occurs between two and four years. At this time the child benefits the ability to represent emotionally and object that is not present at that moment. There extension of language and pretend play are rises of symbolic thought. They get started using scribbled designs to represent people, houses, automobiles, clouds, and many other things. At this stage, their pictures don't seem to make sense to an adult but in their mind it makes sense, they are extremely imaginative. Suns will be green, skies are blue, and turf is yellow. Because they get older their drawings will become more realistic. Inside the symbolic stage there are still two important restrictions, egocentrism and animism. "Egocentrism is the shortcoming to distinguish between's one's own point of view and somebody else's perspective. " For example if some may be talking to a child on the phone and ask a question the kid might nod instead of responding to with words. They'll fail to realize that the other person on the far side of the phone will not seem them. The intuitive thought level is the next sub level; this stage starts off at about four yrs. old to seven years old. Children start to work with primitive reasoning and want to know all the answers to a whole bunch of questions. At this stage children know the data but don't realize that they know it. The kid lacks conservation; they don't really recognize that the characteristic of any object remains the same even though the object might change to look at. For example they'll understand 5+6=11 however they won't understand the change, 6+5=11. Another stage is Concrete functional (seven calendar year to eleven yrs. old). At this stage the child has the ability to perform math problems with numbers rather than with objects and they can logically think about things and events. The final stage is formal operational (eleven to fifteen yrs. old. ). The child's cognitive buildings are like those of a grown-up and can think logically. They begin to think more in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways (Santrock, 37). They could develop hypothesis about ways to solve problems.

There are four key ideas that Jean Piaget thinks in schemas, assimilation and accommodation, business, and equilibration. Schemas are actions or mental representations that organize knowledge. "Piaget said that as the kid seeks to create and knowledge of the planet. " Physical activities and cognitive activities develop in childhood. A baby's schemas are produced by actions that can be performed on items, such as sucking, looking, and grasping. As a child gets older they develop schemas which include strategies and strategies for problem resolving. When one grows to adulthood, they may have constructed an enormous volume of diverse schemas, which range from how to drive a car to the concept of fairness. "Assimilation and accommodation occurs when children modify their schemas to fit new information and experience. " (Santrock, 37). For instance an 8 12 months old girl is given a hammer and nail to put up a picture. She never used one before, but she has learned relatively how to utilize it. She places the toe nail on the wall membrane and swings too much and bends the nail, this is recognized as assimilation. She then adjusts the toenail to work on her behalf and the picture, this is known as accommodation. She changes her knowledge schemas to new information. "Organization is the grouping of isolated actions into a higher order system. " (Santrock, 38). Finally, "equilibration is a system that clarifies how children change from one stage of considered to the next. "

People have challenged Piaget's theory. You will find questions in many areas that contain aroused. "Some cognitive capabilities emerge sooner than Piaget thought. Some aspects of subject performance emerge earlier than he believed [. . . ] Conservation of amount has been demonstrated as early as years three, although Piaget did not think it surfaced until get older seven. " (Santrock, 39). Yet another way Piaget is questioned is that lots of children still think in concrete functional ways or are just starting to master formal businesses. Some theorist feels that we ought not to throw out Piaget altogether. These theorist known as non-Piagetians argue that Piaget theory is not absolutely all right, some things need to be considered for revision. Many disagree with his theory because a lot of his work was finished with his own three children

Like Piaget, Lawerance Kohlberg stressed that development primarily consists of moral reasoning and occurs in periods. Kohlberg developed his theory after interviewing children, adolescents, and adults about their take on moral dilemmas. Each indivdual was given a story to learn or had the storyline read to them, following the specific was asked some questions. Based on the answers the individual gave in response to the dilemma, Kohlberg developed a theory of moral development that has three main levels with two stages at each of these levels. In order to understand Kohlberg's theory, one must understand the term "internalization which refers to the developmental differ from externally controlled action to internal managed behavior. "

Level one known as the Preconvention Morality with sub stage one (Heteronomous Morality) Children obey because adults inform them to follow. Kohlberg calls stage one "preconventional" because children do not yet speak as associates of world. "Instead, they see morality as something exterior to themselves. " (Crain, 1985). Level two is named individualism, goal, and exchange. In this level individuals follow their own interests and let others do the same. At this time individuals speak as isolated individuals rather than as customers of society. There is no identification with values of the family or community.

Level two known as the conventional level. Level three children (usually in their teenagers) see morality as more than simply simple bargains. They believe they ought to react in good ways and try to live up to the expectations of family and the community. At this stage individuals value trust, nurturing, and loyalty to others. Stage four is cultural system morality; the average person becomes more concerned with society all together. "Moral judgments are based on understanding of the interpersonal order, rules, justice, and responsibility. " (Santrock, 102).

Level three also known as post normal morality is divided into stage five social contract and individual protection under the law and stage six universal key points. "In stage five, individuals commence to account for the differing prices opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of legislation are essential for keeping a contemporary society, but members of the culture should agree after these standards. " (Wagner, 2009). In stage six, "Kohlberg's final degree of moral reasoning is based upon universal moral rules and abstract reasoning. At this time, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if indeed they conflict with laws and guidelines, " (Wagner, 2009).

Many critics have said that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the idea as justice when making moral choices. It is assumed that other factors like compassions, caring, and feelings play an important role in moral reasoning. Many don't think that moral reasoning doesn't lead to moral patterns. Kohlberg's theory is too centered on moral thinking, however "there's a difference between knowing what we must do versus our own activities" (Crain, 1985).

"Maslow proposed that human determination can be grasped as resulting from a hierarchy of needs, " ("Motivation, " 2009). Maslow is known as to be the founding daddy of Humanistic Psychology. Humanistic Mindset is also known as "Third Power. " Maslow does not believe that tendencies is according to external or internal forces, he thinks they are managed by inner/external makes. He thinks that humans have the ability to make free alternatives and practice free will. Maslow based mostly his hierarchy of needs predicated on two groupings, deficit needs and progress needs. Inside the deficiency needs, Maslow believes that each of the lower levels must be found before moving to the next higher level. The degrees of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs are Physiological, Protection, Love and belongingness, Esteem, and Self-Actualization. "As the lower-level needs are found, [. . . ] the inspiration to meet the higher-level needs becomes energetic, " ("Motivation, " 2009). As a person moves upwards it becomes much more difficult to fulfill each level. Maslow thinks as a result of this, there are incredibly few people that reach the top level, and for many who do it's a lifelong process. He feels that Albert Einstein, Mohandas Gandhi, and Eleanor Roosevelt have grown to be completely self-actualized. 5 Relating to Maslow, "Among ten people extends to self-actualization. In the physiological level the need of appetite, thirst and sleeping have to be met before moving up to the Security level. This consists of the needs an individual has for oxygen, water, vitamins, protein, and temps. One must be productive, get rest, sleep, ability to get rid of waste, and as you gets older have sexual relations. In the Safe practices level one must feel that they can survive and are protected from conflict and crime. In the Love and belongingness level one need to feel security, love, and attention from others. Having friends, family, and the city enter into play at this level. An individual would need feel a feeling of loneliness. After this level, individuals move up to the esteem level, one needs to feel good about them. You will find two sub-levels of the esteem level, the low level being need for the value of others, the necessity for position, and appreciation. The higher level includes the need for self-respect. The last level self-actualization one must realize their potential.

"Corresponding to Maslow, do it yourself actualization is the inborn drive to develop all one's talents and capacities. It consists of understandings one's own potential, agreeing to oneself and other as unique individuals, and taking problem-centered approach to life situations, " (Huffman, 477). Self actualization is and ongoing process of growth. At this level you need to be able "to be all that you can be" It is possible for a person to fluctuate between levels. Sometimes life will toss curve balls like the loss of a job and can bump one down a level. Maslow was also responsible for the theories of Metaneeds and Metapathologies. He thinks that the people need the following what to be happy. "Truth, rather than dishonesty. Goodness, somewhat than bad. Beauty, not ugliness or vulgarity. Unity, wholeness, and transcendence of opposites, not arbitrariness or obligated alternatives. Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life. Uniqueness, not bland uniformity. Perfection and need, not sloppiness, inconsistency, or car accident. Completion, alternatively than incompleteness. Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness. Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity. Richness, not environmental impoverishment. Effortlessness, not strain. Playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery. Self-sufficiency, not dependency. Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness. " (Kinnes, 2009).

Maslow has been criticized in many various ways critics believe humanists are unrealistic, passionate and even naЇve about individual nature. They don't believe that everyone is "inherently good as they say?" (Huffman, 478). The history of murders, warfar and other hostility acts has proven otherwise. Psychoanalytic conditions and ideas such as self-actualization are difficult to determine and test scientifically. "Humanistic manners have been criticized for basically describing personality rather than describe it, " (Huffman, 478)

In finish, Bandura, Piaget, Kohlberg, and Maslow have all been an enormous impact on the globe around us. Bandura's theory is true, many children do imitate what their older sibling or father or mother will. Now a day's tv set has a huge impact of the child's mind. Piaget's analysis was focused on his children however; it holds true that every child goes through developmental stages. I have to say that I really do not agree with the ages Piaget acquired put in place into his theory because every child differs. Not all children learn at the same level. This may be exceptional true through the sight of Special Education. Many children within the Special Education program develop a lot slower when compared to a student that is at a General Education program will. Maslow's theory, I believe to be one of the more believable ones. I really believe every person must achieve one level before they reach the next level in the hierarchy of needs. However I think there can be an exception between your Belongingness and love to the esteem level. There are numerous critics that not believe in these developmental theories. However, each of them play a significant role in education and their name lives on.

References

  • Boerre, G (2006). Albert Bandura. Retrieved Feb 2, 2009, from http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/bandura. html. Crain, W. C. (1985). Chapter Seven Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. Retrieved Feb 21, 2009, from http://faculty. plts. edu/gpence/html/kohlberg. htm. Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology DOING HIS THING, 8th Release. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 477-478. Humanistic Psychology. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February2, 2009, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online:. Kinnes, T. (2009). Abraham Maslow: A Reader. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 from http://oaks. nvg. org/abraham-maslow. html. Drive. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved Feb2, 2009, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online:. Santrock, J. (2008) Educational Mindset. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 37-42 102- 105, 243-245, 452-453. Wagner, K. (2009). Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development. Retrivede February 27, 2009, from http://psychology. about. com/od/development

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