Human nature and narcissism - Psychoanalysis. T. 1...

Human nature and narcissism

It is self-evident that narcissism as a phenomenon, first of all, can be regarded as a specific expression of human nature. It is no accident that Freud, like Fromm, marks this word as a category of philosophical anthropology. Neither anal zeal, nor masochistic samogryz, nor hysteria can give an idea of ​​a person with such a relief as narcissism. It is possible, with some conventionality, to say that a person is narcissistic by definition. Otherwise, he would not have risen above the natural kingdom. Not born in the bosom of philosophy of the well-known formula: "Man is the effort to be a man". But here in our reasoning there must be a certain caution. All this we call narcissism, realizing the inaccuracy, the conventionality of this concept.

As a scientific term, the concept of "narcissism" was put into circulation by H. Ellis from 1898 to denote a pathological form of narcissism. Let's not forget that the term narcissism first appears in Freud in 1910. However, it had a limited meaning and was used to denote the homosexual choice of the object. Expanding meaning of the word appeared later, most often in a metaphorical sense. Thus, NA Berdyaev writes that the Slavophile conception does not come from theoretical speculations, but from the depths of the United States Orthodox spirit. It is this primary act of narcissism, according to the United States philosopher, that is the archetype and grain of Western spirituality and Western culture.

One can reason about the human psyche by observing it in a state of some norm. After all, before Freud, psychologists mainly focused on the knowledge of the ordinary, rather than neurotic psyche. The Austrian psychiatrist has shown that it is possible to break through to serious revelations, studying the psyche in its morbid state. This can be attributed to Freud. However, he did not believe that a person is narcissistic by definition. Even fixing primary narcissism, Freud was far from thinking that he was laying human nature. Then what is the contribution to philosophical anthropology? It is in distinguishing between norm and pathology. Man by definition calls himself the crown of evolution. If we say: this is narcissism, then we will finally get tangled up in the problem.

We are entitled to speak of narcissism not as a universal human quality, but as a violation of the norm, a neurotic excess of this norm or as a grandiose blow-up of the ego. If we take the opposite position, then why is the Rayhian characterology with its manifold neurotic states? Let us in this case speak only of one human manifestation-exorbitant self-conceit. Talking of narcissism, Z. Freud and E. Fromm gave the key to the philosophical comprehension of man, thus denoting the reverse course of thought - from the neurotic state to the detection of the norm.

So everything else: selfishness, self-love, the desire to really appreciate their merits to humanity ( And calls me any language in it), the urge for self-realization, are not today the aim topic of our conference. From this point of view, the expression "normal narcissism" implanted in our literature is, in my opinion, an oxymoron like the "virtuous prostitute" or "noble robber".

In psychoanalysis, narcissism is a fall from the norm. Freud's analysis of narcissism as a neurotic state really allowed us to better understand human nature, in other words, to separate its adequate and inadequate options. T. Hobbes believed that rivalry is the basis of human nature. But are all cultures totally infected with narcissism? The phenomenon of atonality is a product of Western consciousness. After all, a Buddhist, first immersed in the bosom of European culture, is shocked by our vanity, the desire to outrun the neighbor at least one inch. And what do you want, to call this Buddhist state - normal narcissism? There are no analogues of European competition, premeditated self-elevation either in Hinduism or in Confucianism.

To be a psychologically full-fledged person, a person must learn to love his body ("I am given a body, what should I do with it, so unique and so mine?"), myself, to move towards myself on the paths of individuation. But is this what we call narcissism?

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