Humanity's duality, Existence - Psychoanalysis. Modern deep psychology

The Humility of Man

Man always remains a person, in whatever era he may live. Morality is an ontological definition of a person, a sign of his special nature, although "unnatural". So a person is arranged, and it is necessary not to correct moral norms, to put them at the service of human (too human, in this case phenomenal) needs, even the highest (in Kant's example - for friendship). This is absolutism, i.e. affirmation of the inviolability of ontological grounds. They are not our invention, we can understand them or not, but we can never invent, invent, formulate. Moral norms can not be created. "

We follow along the evolutionary chain of Darwin and suddenly find that at its final stage something inexplicable happened. Man did not simply rise above the natural kingdom and become a special kind of being, but also "at once" (Sartre's word) has found a human and conscious, moral and transcendent, human and free. Perhaps it was not without the providence of God. Today, scientists write about the fact that a person is born with an already ready adherence to the numinous. He has transcendental and moral feelings.

Existence

Existence (from Latin exsisto - to come from, born from, in a figurative sense - to reveal oneself) is one of the fundamental philosophical categories describing the concrete being of things, not covered in full discursive thinking. Beginning with S.Kierkegaard (XIXth century) and later, in our time, in existential philosophy, the notion of the baselessness and non-presupposition of existentialism comes to the fore again (this is now purely about human existence), which is connected with the complete rejection of rationalist reductionism in interpretation of both the world and man. Existence now does not have a logical structure. It is not derived from anything, but it is stated, experienced. It, therefore, can not be explained, its experience can not be directly conveyed. It is random. Finally, a special meaning is attached to the concept of M. Heidegger. As in the Middle Ages, he has existentialism as a dynamic reality. To exist, according to Heidegger, is to be-ahead-of-itself, that is, project yourself into the future. Human being reveals itself outside the sphere of publicity in its finiteness. Finiteness means temporality. When Heidegger says that the essence of man is his ego, he first of all means the historicity of man, impossible without the "escape of himself" and returns to yourself & quot ;. In this search for oneself ahead of oneself, urged by its mortality, a person finds himself as a "place of being", as here-being.

According to K. Jaspers, freedom exists as an existential. But transcendence is not an existential. For existence exists, only because there is communication, transcendence is that without the other, it is itself. What in existence is for the existence of an expression of evil: "I, only I alone" - would correspond to such a being, which is itself without any correlation. The limitations and conditionality inherent in existential existence can not be inherent in transcendence. Existence, possessing itself at the root of its own self, or not only itself, is correlated with transcendence, which, if it were an existential, should not only concern itself, but, moreover, be addressed to another as its transcendence. Identification of transcendence is not feasible, because existence knows itself as standing in relation to the deity and knows that it is not a deity.

According to K. Jaspers, transcendence as an authentic being is not, like existence, freedom, but the foundation of this freedom, being that makes this freedom of existence possible, as well as the freedom of reason and idea. Since it is not identical to any of them, we must transcend all these ways of thinking freedom in order to survive fear in unimaginability.

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