Journal article review
Does hunger influence judgements of female physical elegance?
The article I've chosen to review is 'Will hunger affect judgements of feminine physical attractiveness?' by Viren Swami and Martin J. Tove´e (2005a. )
The advantages shows us that the authors constructed their research from a past review by Nelson and Morrison (2005), which suggested that appetite and satiety influenced an individual's elegance inclination. Swami and Tove'e (2005a) replicated this research using an alternative variable: photographic stimuli of women.
Other beliefs that helped to frame their research were from ethnographers who recommended a social difference in behaviour towards the idealistic body form and obesity. Many other researchers found a good correlation between surplus fat and physical elegance in areas surrounding the South Pacific (Wilkinson, Ben-Tovin, & Walker, 1994). That is understood to be due to body fat as an implicit cue of learning resource abundance. Swami and Tove'e's cross-cultural research was completed within Britain and Japan which I believe was a good test as both have opposing cultures, with Japan being collectivist and Britain being individualist.
The research was completed so that they can test the validity of Nelson and Morrison's (2005) findings. The author's analysis looked to boost upon the prior research through; using photographic stimuli of real women, using the same technique and examination as prior studies to become in a position to cross-compare, and by using photographic stimuli in terms of BMI (body mass index) instead of overall body weight.
The authors used 50 dark and white photographic images of real women; however, to maintain confidentiality and also to reduce the effect of facial appeal, the encounters were obscured. Similarly, the ethnicity, wealth and age group of the photographs were not obvious. The photographic stimuli was standardised to increase the validity and all images were 3-dimensional as opposed to the 2-dimensional series drawings of the previous research. Personally i think this improvement is significant as the 3rd dimension allows a whole new point of view of physique.
The authors mentioned several methodological limits which were tackled within the talk, these were; the method used to familiarise individuals with the photographic stimuli, by requesting them to specify the photos they thought were pregnant, may have influenced the appeal judgement, however this flaw can be seen as affordable as all members undertook the same conditions. Another limitation of the strategy is the reliance on the participant's self evaluation of the appetite or satiety. Problems such as an unsatisfying meals may have inspired their appeal judgements.
The members of the study were male college or university students who had been asked to be a part of the study after entering or departing the university dining room. This information combined with the procedures of the test have been evidently mentioned within the journal by the authors and so with the aid of the same test and equipment, I'd easily have the ability to replicate the research.
The methodology comes after on from the goals and strategies through highlighting other research of similar topics and importance to the analysis. One piece of research cited is another analysis of the authors, this time around researching the socio-economic position and cross ethnical variations of the impact of cravings for food on physical appeal judgements. You will discover a lot more cited research theories and results as Swami, Knight et al. (2006) discovered that judgements of the attractiveness of bodyweight can be modified as observed when individuals from rural societies migrated to urban societies, their choice was increasingly affected towards slimmer statistics.
The results within the journal article firstly indicate the utilization of intra class stability measure in order to be sure of similar ranking over the two condition organizations. The main conclusions of the test are obviously represented and it is easy to gather that BMI accounts for over 70% of elegance scores, 74. 2% for hungry participants and 75. 8% for satiated members. The authors also state that these results are consistent with earlier research.
The discussion's summary is partly predicated on the studies from the results section nonetheless it is principally cited theories and past research and their links to the authors own findings and what has been cited within the release. For instance, the author's replicate of the work of Nelson and Morrison (2005) is shown to have corroborating findings. More earlier research is stated within the conversation such as Pettijohn and Jungeberg, (2004) who found that physical preferences varied appropriately with historical economical conditions.
An alternative reason is offered within the debate as the authors high light that the findings only showed hook difference in inclination between the hungry and satiated men and that the most effective BMI was throughout the 'normal' range for both participant conditions. However, an explanation for this emerges as they suggest that neither prosperity nor cravings for food is the deciding element in the effect on judgement, but it is actually due to the implicit cues of tool abundance.
Another problem this review may have come across is that our hunger state is non-influential once we are actually already psychologically programmed with what we think is actually attractive through our interpersonal surroundings like the effect of friends family and in particular, the advertising. This limitation is touched upon within the debate as research by Kim and Markus, (1999) recommended that cultural values are internalized and these worth then form our own individual tastes.
The authors do not suggest any further research to be completed however they do cite their own work in progress (Swami, Tove'e et al. , in press), which continues research into judgements of feminine body weight, however this time with more a focus towards socio-economic status.
Towards the finish of the conversation, the authors briefly suggest a concept for a further improvement for another research on a single topic. They claim that in order to lessen the limitation associated with an unsatisfying meal, and so a non satiated participant, a stricter approach must be studied in which participants are perhaps given certain amounts of food in a laboratory condition to control degrees of satiety. I feel that to improve the exterior validity of the test, a new test of varying members should be utilized in further research. For example, women could be launched in to the participant test and non university students could be utilized as this potentially limits age ranges and socio-economic status.
The investigation can be an interesting contribution to psychology as first of all, it plays a part in the prior research which it designed to replicate. The results of the study represent that of the previous study and therefore both pieces of results are deemed more useful and validity is increased. Secondly, this research is unique as no other studies on judgements of physical attractiveness have been done utilizing a sample of men university or college students using the same experimental conditions as the study.
My personal reactions to the study are that it was performed in a professional manner and has clear and significant results. The results portion of the task could quite possibly have used differing ways of statistic representation and the talk could perhaps have included more ideas for further research. Finally, due to the confidentiality of the photographed women and the men participants, Personally i think the study was moral in character.
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