Identity of the person and its diagnostics
Self-determination and self-actualization of a person are inextricably linked to such characteristics as identity (from Latin identity - identity , similarity). Identity is seen as the core of the personality, its inner essence, closely related to the value-semantic sphere (K. Jung, V. Frankl), and the desire to acquire identity is a desire for integrity.
The notion of identity began to be given considerable attention in the 1970s. XX century. thanks to the work of E. Erickson, and later J. Marcia. In E. Ericson's concept it had a number of meanings. One of them is "ego-identity", or identity of the ego (Ego-identity), means a sense of identity to oneself (despite the changes taking place in the process of development), the integrity, continuity of one's existence in time and space, the possibility of control over oneself and at the same time the realization of the fact that your identity and continuity are recognized by others. The identity of the ego is the most general, personal, sometimes unconscious representation of a person about himself.
In addition, the concept of Erickson uses concepts such as personal identity and social identity & quot ;. Personal (individual) identity is seen as more social and conscious, characterizing goals, values, abilities, ideals, needs and other individual characteristics of a person (including professional inclination, elect choice, etc.). Social identity is defined as identifying oneself with other members of the group, assuming certain social roles, adherence to group ideals and goals.
The Erickson Construct identity was operationalized in order to measure it by a number of psychologists. The most successful is the model of identity status, proposed by Canadian psychologist J. Marcia. Marcia views identity as a hypothetical psychological structure, phenomenologically manifested through patterns of human problems solving. As behavioral indicators that differentiate the presence or absence of identity, they are allocated acceptance or non-commitment and passing or failing the crisis, researching alternatives (crisis , exploring of alternatives). The first criterion reflected the presence or absence of commitment to personally significant goals, values and beliefs; the second is the existence of periods of research of alternatives, during which the plans and values that he adopted at earlier stages were subjected to verification and analysis. At the intersection of the two criteria, four identity states were identified and described:
- identity diffusion - this lack of identity, when neither the search nor the decision of the individual was performed;
- a foreclosure identity - own search of goals, ideals has not been implemented, but there is a certain and stable system of values, beliefs and commitments, formed under the influence of external circumstances;
- moratorium means active search for a solution to the problem (active living of the crisis), while there is no definite and stable system of values, beliefs and commitments ;
- the achieved identity is characterized by an independently performed active search for a solution to the problem (a crisis is passed) and a sufficiently stable self-generated and personally significant system of values, beliefs and commitments.
In Western psychodiagnostics, a whole group of methods for diagnosing identity statuses has been developed. Among them there are both questionnaires and projective techniques. In the domestic practice, two methods are used. To diagnose the identity status of J. Marcia in 1964, a Semi-structured interview was developed (later modified by him together with S. Archer and A. Waterman), which can be used for people aged 12 to 60 years. The interview begins with a few general introductory questions about the place of residence, age, marital status and so on. The set of asked diagnostic questions, although it is defined, can vary depending on the answers received. The questions are divided into relatively independent blocks:
- professional activity;
- marriage and conjugal roles;
- Parent roles;
- family and professional priorities;
- religious beliefs
- political convictions;
- password settings.
The number of open questions varies between 200 and 300; the number of closed issues is within a few dozen. Each block of questions is aimed at obtaining information about the individual experience of an individual in a particular field. The questions are formulated in such a way that they allow the respondent to give a detailed answer.
The effectiveness of using interviews depends on the professional training of the psychologist. Marcia provided special training for both the procedure for conducting and the rules for processing interviews. The manual details the indicators for each of the criteria for identifying identity statuses.
Was translated into United States The questionnaire objective measurement of the status of ego-identity (Objective Measure of Status Ego-Identity - OMEIS), developed by the Canadian psychologist JR Adams in 1979 on the basis of the concept of J. Marcia.
The initial version of the questionnaire contained 24 points, later a number of statements were revised and their number increased to 64, allowing to diagnose two components of the ego identity: ideological and Identical (social) identity.
Under the ideological component of ego-identity, the author is understood as an identity that reflects the values and attitudes of an individual associated with politics, religion, professional activity, basic principles and views on the way of life. This scale of the OMEIS questionnaire was adapted for the United States-language sample and named J.Adams's Ideological Ego-Identity Scale. It contains 32 statements, with which it is necessary to express the degree of its agreement on a six-point scale (from "completely agree" to "completely disagree").
I hope that in time there will be something more suitable than what I'm doing right now.
I do not think about religion at all, it does not bother me at all.
The sample, on which psychometric checks of this scale were conducted, was 83 people. They are students aged 18 to 24 years. The indices of both homogeneity and retest reliability (interval 1 month) can be considered satisfactory. There is no data on validity.
The scale of interpersonal identity also contains 32 statements, with which it is necessary to express the degree of its agreement on a six-point scale (from "completely agree" to "completely disagree"). The statements of this scale reflect the individual's ideas about friendship, dating, leisure and leisure, as well as views on marital roles and responsibilities in marriage.
I have no close friends, and I'm not looking for anyone.
I never seriously considered masculine and feminine roles in marriage; it does not bother me very much.
Psychometric checks were carried out on students, the sample size was more than 200 people. The age of the subjects is from 18 to 28 years. The indices of homogeneity and retest reliability (interval 1-1.5 months) are satisfactory.
The factor analysis did not confirm the theoretically isolated structure of both scales of the questionnaire, so the authors of the adaptation concluded that the scales of the ideological ego identity and interpersonal identity of the OMEIS questionnaire do not have a factor structure and belong to a group of empirical personality questionnaires constructed on the basis of empirical highlighting of some psychological features. The question of the validity of the Škal is not yet decided and is in the process of verification.
In the early 1980's. D. McAdams has developed an Interview on the life history of (Life Story Interview), aimed at diagnosing identity. He suggested that it is life story and represents a personal identity, since the latter is not some kind of objective property of a person, but consists in the integration of events, deeds, experiences into coherent a life story connecting the past, the present and the future. This ensures the unity and purposefulness of human life. From the point of view of D. Makadams, identity can not be achieved, since it is a process that lasts a lifetime and is characterized by periods of relative stability and crises. He calls a life story a narrative identity.
The adapted version of the United States version of the interview about life history was made by FI Barskiy. In the interview, the respondent is asked to play the role of the narrator and create a story about his past, present and future, focusing on the most important thing in his life, on the information that reveals the most essential in him.
The interview consists of several sections and goes from the general to the particular. First, the respondent is asked to present his life in the form of chapters of the book and briefly state the content of each of them. Then he is offered to tell about the most significant events from different periods of life, which caused the earliest experience, the strongest and most negative experiences, the turning point, etc. Each event needs to be described in detail: who participated in it, what it felt, did, thought. The respondent is invited to report on how this event affected his life and his life, to present the best and worst options for his future.
After that, the conversation switches to influences on him from other people, as well as books, movies, stories that happened to others. In conclusion, he is asked questions about life values, religious and political views, and also suggest the central theme of his life story.
The interview lasts from one and a half to three to four hours and is recorded on a tape recorder, and then deciphered verbatim. With the help of special methods created by D. Makadams, such parameters of life histories as the representation of themes of "personal activity" and generality & quot ;, the presence of the compensation/refund and "damage/damage", the degree of integration of characters in life history, narrative complexity (differentiation of life history). In recent years, D. McAdams' staff has been developing ways of assessing and other parameters of life histories ("quiet ego", personal growth, understanding of experience). To work with this technique, professionally trained psychodiagnostics are required.
Social Identity (E. Ericson's term) is a process of the individual's realization of his belonging to a certain community. When one speaks of such an identity, one has in mind the socio-psychological level of identification. This is a concept of yourself, which is formed as a derivative of a person's awareness of his belonging to a particular social group. Any identity is acquired in the process of socialization.
In philosophy, the notion "collective identity", is widely used to mean a sense of belonging of an individual to a particular community, which he realizes as a significant personal characteristic and is based on unity of interests, beliefs, symbols, stereotypes, behavioral norms. Consequently, collective identity is a generic term for any kind of social identity. Different types of identity - ethnic, religious, professional, organizational and so on. - in their basis have different grounds, i.e. the sense of belonging to different social groups rests on the commonality of nationality, religion, profession and so on. and the importance for the individual of such belonging. Identity always involves recognition from others - both individuals and institutions.
Ethnic identity as a system of representations about the components of the ethnocultural world, integrating the individual with his ethnic community, is formed on the basis of the individual's awareness of his belonging to a particular ethnos. There are three types of ethnic identity: ethnocentric, multi-ethnic and trans-ethnic. Ethnocentric identity indicate the orientation of the individual only to one, their ethnic community. It is with her that she connects her destiny, her expectations, plans, attitudes. Polyethnic identity is characterized by the same attitude toward several ethnic groups, knowledge or desire to know several languages, the desire to visit several cultures. Trans. distinguishes an individual who does not consider himself a nation, but considers himself to be a man of the world.
To diagnose the ethnic identity of G. U. Soldatova and S. V. Ryzhova, a questionnaire "Types of ethnic identity" was developed. The questionnaire contains 30 statements, with which it is necessary to express the degree of its consent, using for answers the 5-step scale (from agree to disagree ). The answers are divided into six types of ethnic identity:
- ethnonihilism - a departure from their own ethnic group and the search for stable socio-psychological groups, not according to ethnic criteria;
- ethnic indifference - the erosion of ethnic identity, expressed in the uncertainty of ethnicity, the irrelevance of ethnicity;
- the norm (positive ethnic identity) - the combination of a positive attitude towards one's people with a positive attitude towards other nations;
- ethno-egoism can be expressed in verbal form as a result of perception through the lens of the construct "my people", but can be manifested in irritation and tension when communicating with representatives of other ethnic groups, and in recognizing for their people the right to solve problems for "someone else's account";
- ethno-isolationism - belief in the superiority of one's people, xenophobia;
- ethnophanatism - willingness to go to any action and recognition of any victims in the name of ethnic interests right up to ethnic cleansing.
I'm a person who ...
- believes that interethnic marriages are destroying the people; prefers the lifestyle of only his own people;
- Usually does not hide its nationality.
The authors do not report the psychometric parameters of their questionnaire, so for the time being it can not be regarded as a psychodiagnostic tool. It can be used in studies to assess ethnic self-awareness.
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