Imagination and Creativity
Views, functions and processes of the imagination
Through sensations, perception and thinking, a person reflects the real properties of objects of the surrounding reality and acts in accordance with them in a specific situation. Through memory, he uses his past experience. However, human behavior can be determined only by current or past properties of the situation, but also by those that may be inherent in the future. Thanks to this ability, images of objects appear in the human consciousness, which at the given moment do not exist, but can subsequently be embodied. In this sense, they are a reflection of the future, a form of transforming the reflection of reality. Ability to reflect the future and act according to the expected, i.e. imaginary, situation is typical only for humans. This ability was formed along with the labor and development of consciousness, because labor activity always requires foreseeing its result, understanding what and how to do.Imagination is the cognitive process of reflecting the future by creating new images based on the processing of perception patterns, thinking and concepts obtained in the previous experience.
Through imagination, images are created that have never been generally perceived by man in reality. The essence of the imagination lies in the transformation of the world. This determines the most important role of the imagination in the development of man as the acting subject.
With. L. Rubinshtein wrote: "In order to transform reality in practice, you need to be able to transform it mentally. This need and satisfies the imagination of the .
Imagination is inextricably linked with speech. Words can express what does not coincide with the exact combination of real objects or corresponding representations, something that a person has never seen. Only with the help of speech and other sounds does man get the opportunity to free himself from the power of immediate impressions.
With the advent of the imagination, the cognitive abilities and forms of human behavior expanded significantly. Imagination is interrelated with all mental processes and aspects of the personality. Interacting with perceptual processes, the imagination imposes its own imprint on them, making it especially individual. For example, admiring the clouds floating in the sky, each person perceives them in different ways, as the image of real clouds is completed with the image of imaginary pictures. Unique images also appear in each of the people listening to a piece of music.
The processes of memory and imagination of the father-in-law are related. The recollection of an event is rarely accurate. A person most often distorts something, embellishes something, adds or changes some details. The richer the person's past experience, the more he is saturated with vivid ideas, impressions, the more significant his role in creating images of imagination.
Imagination and thinking are processes that are close in structure and function. LS Vygotsky called them "extremely related", noting the commonality of their origin and structure. Imagination he considered as a necessary, integral moment of thinking, especially creative, since thinking processes always include the processes of prediction and anticipation. In problem situations, people use both thinking and imagination. The imagined idea of a possible solution strengthens the search motivation and determines its direction. The more uncertain the problem situation is, the more unknown in it, the greater the role of imagination. It can be implemented with incomplete source data, as it complements them with products of its own creativity.
The meaning of the imagination in obtaining true knowledge about the world, LS Vygotsky formulated in the form of a scientific paradox: "The correct knowledge of reality is impossible without departing from it, from those immediate concrete individual impressions with which this reality is represented in the elementary acts of our consciousness" .
Imagination is an instrument by which such a "departure" becomes possible. In all types of cognitive activity, imagination allows a person to more freely treat the real objects of reality, transform them, find and establish new connections between them, which expands his possibilities as a cognizing subject.
A deep relationship exists between imagination and emotional-volitional processes. One of its manifestations is that when an imaginary image arises in a person's consciousness, he experiences true, real, and not imaginary emotions, which allows to avoid undesirable influences and to realize the desired images. Vygotsky called this the "law of the emotional reality of imagination."
A person, for example, needs to cross a boat through a stormy river. Imagining that the boat can roll over, he experiences not imaginary, but real fear. This encourages him to choose a safer way to cross.
Imagination can also affect the power of emotions and feelings experienced by a person. For example, people often experience feelings of anxiety, anxiety about only imaginary, not real events. Changing the image of the imagination can reduce the level of anxiety, relieve tension. Representing the experiences of another person helps to form and manifest in relation to him a feeling of empathy, empathy. In volitional actions, the imagination of the final result of the activity prompts its implementation. The brighter the image of the imagination, the more its motivating force, but the image's realism also matters.
Imagination is a significant factor affecting the development of the personality. Ideals as an imaginary image that a person wants to imitate or seeks as a model for the organization of his life, personal and moral development.
Types of imagination. The degree of activity imagination can be passive and active.
Passive imagination does not stimulate a person to take active action. He is satisfied with the created images and does not seek to implement them in reality or draws images that in principle can not be realized. In the life of such people are called utopians, barren dreamers. NV Gogol, creating the image of Manilov, made his name a household name for this type of people.
Active imagination is the creation of images that are subsequently realized in practical actions and products of activity. Sometimes it requires a lot of effort and considerable time. Active imagination increases the creative content and effectiveness of work and other activities.
Imagination is connected with the will of a person, on the basis of which they are singled out:
• involuntary imagination , when images are created with weakened consciousness activity. It takes place in a half-demented state or in a dream, as well as with some disorders of consciousness;
• arbitrary imagination is a conscious, directed activity, in which a person is aware of its goals and motives. It is characterized by deliberate creation of images.
The activity and arbitrariness of the imagination can be combined in various ways. An example of an arbitrary passive imagination is dreams, when a person deliberately surrenders to thoughts of what is unlikely to ever come true. An arbitrary active imagination is manifested in a long, purposeful search for the desired image, which is characteristic, in particular, for the activity of writers, inventors, and artists.
In connection with the past experience, there are:
• recreating the imagination - creating images of objects that were not previously perceived by the person in the finished form, although they are familiar with similar objects or with their individual elements. Images are formed by a verbal description, a schematic image - a drawing, a drawing, a geographic map. In this case, knowledge is used relative to these objects, which determines primarily the reproductive nature of the images created. At the same time, they differ from the memory representations by the great variety, flexibility and dynamism of the image elements;
• creative imagination - the independent creation of new images that are embodied in the original products of various activities with minimal mediated reliance on past experience.
Drawing various images in your imagination, people estimate the possibility of their implementation in reality. If a person believes (and this belief is thorough) in the possibility of realizing the created images, realistic imagination takes place. If he does not see such an opportunity - it's fantastic imagination .
There is no rigid boundary between realistic and fantastic imagination. Many cases are known where the image, born of man's fantasy as completely unrealistic (for example, invented by A. N. Tolstoy hyperboloid), later became a reality. Fantastic imagination is present in the story-role games of children. It formed the basis for literary works of a certain genre - fairy tales, science fiction, fantasy (fantasy).
Creating images of strongly desired objects or events is characteristic of dreams as a special kind of imagination. A child dreams of a new toy, a teenager about gaining prestige in the class, an actor about a new role, an athlete about winning a competition. Genetically, the dream grows out of the game. As in the game, a child can try on any role - a hero, a rescuer, a conqueror of the cosmos, so any person in dreams sees himself as he wants to be - strong, intelligent, able to overcome all obstacles, happy. A person usually dreams about what is achievable, or about what is the limit of his desires, or about what is not feasible at all. In dreams, the activity of personality is embodied, therefore they are connected in various ways with real activity. In some cases, the dream replaces the real action with the imaginary, reducing the activity of the individual. In others it will create a model of the future, which becomes an incentive, a motive for active activity. Dreams reflect the direction of the personality and influence its development. A person strives for what he dreams about, but everyone's dreams are different. Someone dreams of the happiness of all people on Earth, and someone only about personal well-being. In dreams, what a person sees the future and what he wants from the future is very clearly manifested.
The functions of the imagination. For all the variety of imaginative forms, they are characterized by a common function that determines their main significance in the life of a person, anticipating the future, an ideal representation of the result of the activity before , how it will be achieved. Other imaginative functions are associated with it:
a) stimulating. Imagined images stimulate, stimulate the person to their realization in concrete actions;
b) planning. The transforming influence of the imagination extends not only to the future activity of a person, but also to his past experience. Imagination promotes selectivity in its structuring and reproduction in accordance with the purposes of the present and future.
The basic processes of the imagination. Creating images of the imagination is carried out through complex processes of processing of actual perceived information and memory representations. Just as in thinking, the basic processes, or operations, of imagination are analysis and synthesis. But unlike thinking in imagination, a person is more free
treats elements of objects, recreating new holistic images. This is achieved through a set of imaginative processes. The main ones are:
• exaggeration (hyperbolization) and minimizing real objects or their parts (for example, creating giant, gin or Thumbelina images);
• accentuation - underlining or exaggeration of actually existing objects or their parts (for example, long nose of Pinocchio, blue hair of Malvina);
• agglutination - the connection of various, real-life parts and properties of objects in unusual combinations (for example, creating fictional images of a centaur, a mermaid).
The connection between imagination and creativity. The specificity of the processes of the imagination is that they do not reproduce individual impressions in the same combinations and forms in which they were perceived and preserved in the form of past experience, but built from new combinations and forms. This manifests a deep inner connection between the imagination and creativity, which is always aimed at creating a new - material values, scientific ideas or artistic images.
There are different types of creativity: scientific, technical, literary, artistic, etc. None of them is possible without the participation of imagination. In its main function - the anticipation of what does not yet exist, imagination causes the emergence of intuition, guesswork, insight as the central link of the creative process. To the scientist the imagination helps to see the phenomenon under study in a new light. In the history of science there are many examples of the emergence of images of the imagination, later realized in new ideas, great discoveries and inventions.
The English physicist Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867), studying the interaction of conductors with a current at a distance, imagined that they were surrounded by invisible lines like tentacles. This led him to the discovery of lines of force and the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. German engineer Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) for a long time observed and analyzed the soaring flight of birds. The image of an artificial bird that arose in his imagination served as the basis for the invention of a glider and the first flight on it.
By creating literary works, the writer realizes in the word the images of his aesthetic imagination. Their brightness, the breadth and depth of the phenomena of reality they embrace are subsequently felt by readers and cause them a sense of co-creation. LN Tolstoy wrote in his diaries that, when perceiving genuinely artistic works, the illusion arises that a person does not perceive but creates, he thinks that he has produced such a beautiful thing. "
Great role of imagination and in pedagogical creativity. Its specificity is that the results of pedagogical activity are not immediately apparent, but through some, sometimes long time. Their representation in the form of a model of the child's personality, the image of his behavior and thinking in the future determines the choice of methods of teaching and upbringing, pedagogical requirements and impacts.
All people have different creative abilities. Their formation is determined by a large number of factors. These include congenital makings, human activities, environmental properties, learning and upbringing conditions that affect the development of a person's features of mental processes and personal qualities that promote creative achievement.
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