The incarnate person feels that he is made up of flesh, blood, bones. She is in her body and is experiencing herself, being exposed to dangers threatening her body, whether illnesses, ugliness, death. Such a person is subject to carnal desires and body disorders. She has experiences of her body as the basis on which her relationships are built. And although the being of such a person is not split into mind and body, nevertheless it can be divided in many ways.
However that may be, in some respects the position of such a person is more risky than the position of a person, somehow separated from the body. After all, the incarnated person is subject to a sense of guilt and anxiety, accompanying carnal desires, and her own body does not serve as a refuge from self-reproach. In any case, the physical I is neither a guarantor against feelings of hopelessness and senselessness, nor an indestructible bulwark that saves from ontological doubts and uncertainties. In short, in itself bodily I is not a defense against psychosis. It is another matter that an embodied personality has a point of reference capable of serving as a prerequisite for a hierarchy of possibilities different from that inherent in a person experiencing himself from the point of view of the dualism of the body and I.
In Laing's understanding, the non-incarnate personality experiences its self as separated or detached from the body. The body is felt not as its own being, but as an object among other objects in the world, it is perceived as a false I, to which the true I as it looks then with amazement, then with caution, then with hatred. This separation from the body leads to the fact that the non-incarnate self becomes an external critic, endowed with the functions of control and criticism of what the body is doing and experiencing. The non-incarnate self becomes a kind of hyper-consciousness, creates its own image and develops relationships with itself and the body, which sometimes turn out to be too complicated for a person.
The schizoid individual does not erect defensive structures against the loss of his body. His attempts are focused on the protection of his ego. But thus he is exposed to the fear associated with the possibility of his own disappearance into nothingness. His autonomy is threatened with absorption. Feeling empty, the schizoid individual perceives the reality of other people as an attempt on his rights, as something that can completely crush and destroy his self. He is afraid of real relationships with living people and can only associate himself with depersonalized personalities.
Thus, the schizoid state can be understood as an attempt to preserve its unreliable structured being. Since all being can not be protected, the schizoid individual is ready to give everything that it is, except for its self. The tragic paradox is that the stronger the I defend in this way, the more it is subjected to destruction. The final destruction of self in schizophrenia is completed not by external attacks of the enemy (present or alleged), not from the outside, but because of the devastation caused by the internal defensive maneuvers themselves.
By distinguishing between the true self and the false self in a schizoid individual, Laing proceeded from the fact that a direct relationship with the world is the sphere of activity of his false self. The latter resembles a mask that a person wears in everyday life. However, the false self of a schizoid individual differs from a mask worn by a normal person. To avoid confusion, Laing singled out three forms of false self, characteristic of normal people, hysteria and schizoid personalities.
A normal person has some of his actions done automatically. These actions do not interfere with the manifestation of spontaneous expression, a man does not seek to reject them as alien to the body and does not try to destroy the alien reality within himself. Unlike a normal person, tantrum separates himself from what he does. He shies away from full involvement in his own actions, pretends not to participate in his own deeds. Seeking to achieve pleasure through his own actions, hysteria at the same time detracts from the significance of these actions. This deviation is different from the schism in the being of the schizoid individual, the false I am which serves as a means for the enjoyment of I or . His false I is compelled to please the will of other people. Unreality, senselessness, and deadness are in the schizoid personality not just products of secondary protection, but are direct consequences of the dynamic structure of its being. And the main split in its being goes along the line of splitting between external servility and an internal departure from obsequiousness.
According to Laing, a schizoid individual often plays in a psychotic or pretends that this is so. He uses pretense and ambiguity, which makes his speech and actions difficult to understand. Quite often a schizophrenic makes a fool of himself and of a doctor. He plays the lunatic to avoid possible responsibility for his thoughts and intentions at any cost. However, in reality, the schizoid individual either does not know who (what) he is, or has become someone (something) different, not himself.
If the basic schism in the schizoid personality is a splitting between external servility and an internal withdrawal from it, and also the cleavage separating I from the body, then such a split splits its own being in two, as a result of which the sensation I disintegrates, and the body becomes the center of a false L. This person has a confusion between here and there & quot ;, inside and outside & quot ;. Therefore, the goal of therapy should be, according to Laing, the achievement of such a condition of the patient, in which his body should be separated from other people. In this case, the person will be able to resemble someone without being a different person, and she will be able to share her feelings, not mixing and not merging them with the feelings of another person. At this stage for the schizoid personality, it is important to check the details lying on the boundary between the inside and "outside", and also to discover what belongs to the real self. Thus I can become a truly embodied self.
Many researchers were of the opinion that psychology deals with people's behavior and has nothing to do with experiences. Laing proceeded from the fact that the existential-phenomenological analysis correlates the experience of one person with the behavior of another with the experience of the second behavior of the first, it is a question of mutual experience. Behavior is closely related to and mediated by experience. The experience of one person is always mediated by him. In turn, the experience of one person is always mediated by the behavior of the other. It is another matter that in the modern society the areas of experience become more alienated from the person and lose contact between the experiences of one person and the experiences of the other. It is no coincidence that what is called normal is nothing more than a derivative of suppression, repression, splitting, projection, introjection and other forms of destructive influence on an experience that is radically alienated from the structure of being. But if the experience is alienated from man or destroyed, then he loses his own self.
From Laing's point of view, Freud's merit was to demonstrate how a normal person is a dried, wrinkled piece of what it can be. Subsequent psychoanalysts, through defense mechanisms, described many ways in which a person is alienated from himself. However, it is necessary to go further, since the protections are of a mechanical nature, because the personality in its experience of itself is separated from them. Personality it seems that she suffers from these defense mechanisms. She does not distinguish between pathologies and is tempted to keep the neurotic reactions of her behavior.
For Laing, a similar state of personality is due to her own alienated experience. But if the person becomes uninvolved, then she learns about her defense mechanisms, takes a step towards a gradual realization of what is happening and can find the ground left under her feet. All protective mechanisms are nothing more than actions undertaken by a person on the basis of one's own experience. As a result, the individual has separated himself from his own actions, experiencing himself as part of a personality subject to the invasion of the destructive psychopathological mechanisms to which she is a relatively helpless victim.
Such kind of protections are not exclusively intrapersonal, as some psychoanalysts believed. In the understanding of Laing, the data of protection are both intrapersonal and interpersonal, since a person affects not only himself, but also the other. In turn, another person affects not only myself, but also my experience. Therefore, activity as such must be understood in terms of the experience from which it arises. At the same time in the theoretical and practical terms it is important to bear in mind that the central relation is between two persons.
This means that in the analyst's relationship - the patient both must act as personalities and that the patient for the analyst is not the object of research and treatment, but primarily and mainly personality, in the relationship with which there is not only interaction but also mutual living . In Laing's conviction, psychotherapy, focused on treating a patient as an object that needs to be changed, and not as a person to be taken, actually perpetuates the disease being treated. In contrast, psychotherapy should be an attempt by two people to restore the fullness of human being through a relationship between them, a search for what the person has lost, a kind of exploration justified shared with the other experience of the experience re-acquired through a therapeutic relationship here and there.< center>
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