Indicating An Sportsmen Arousal Levels And Performance Impact Psychology Essay

Arousal is a physiological and mental state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It includes the activation of the reticular activating system in the mind stem, the autonomic anxious system and the endocrine system, resulting in increased heartrate and blood pressure and a problem of sensory alertness, mobility and readiness to reply.

'http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Arousal'

There are 3 main theories' that can signify a runners arousal levels and exactly how much it will have an impact on the website performance. The 3 ideas are the pursuing;

-Drive theory

This theory was investigated in 1943 by Hull and Spence and then Spence investigated it again in 1966. This theory shows that if you arousal levels are high in that case your performance levels will be high too. From this diagram here this implies that the higher your level of arousal then the quality of your performance will be better higher, and indicates that if you had not been aroused in that case your performance will be poor. Together with the Drive theory hull and Spence uncovered that arousal exaggerates a individuals dominating response.

For a good example in a wearing situation would be that if a player is a really good shooter when they are not aroused, so when they have got a higher level of arousal they'll be able to photograph even better because they're skilled in capturing and arousal will exaggerate this skill. Alternatively this shows that if you'd a bad strategy at skill then the more aroused you was will be the more exaggerated that bad approach is likely to be. The criticism concerning this theory is the fact if an sportsman was a starter and you'd a high degree of arousal it could not have an optimistic influence on your performance if you didn't have the correct technique it could allow you to truly have a high work ethic but you'll be doing bad as the strategy is not there. Which means this would only work if you were a professional and participating in at a higher level, because you'll have the correct technique.

-The inverted U theory

This theory was uncovered by a man called Yerkes and Dodson in 1908, this theory accounts for different types of arousal levels of sportsmen by indicating the average person difference in their optimized performance. This diagram demonstrates the arousal levels little by little reach their peak and then they gradually decrease. Relating this to sport would be a sportsman could be really aroused in the first 1 / 2 of the game scheduled to team mates, the crowed and the sort of event E. g. play-off. Then after half time they may be tired and fatigued which would lower their arousal levels and would have an impact on their performance. The criticism of this theory is you cant tell what an athletes ideal arousal levels are because the perfect level is not always at the top of the curve it could be pretty much. Another criticism of this is that it dose not consider of the amount of arousal necessary for simple task(E. g. Weight lifting) and complex activity (E. g. A layup in basketball). Because for a simple task you should be more aroused and then for complex tasks you need to be less aroused however this theory doesn't support this.

-Catastrophe theory

This theory was learned by Hardy and Fazey in 1987, this theory is nearly the same as the 'Inverted U theory' so the runners arousal levels steadily increase with their optimal arousal level and unlike the 'Inverted U theory' instead of slowly decreasing it will greatly drop down. By the runners arousal levels greatly reducing then their performance will quickly decrease. This may affect the athlete psychologically because they will be less aroused and will battle to up their arousal level up which will reduce their performance.

Criticism about this theory is it is too extreme for an sportsman that is performing at a higher level for the first half a game and then during the second half the have lost concentrate and their degree of performance has lowered at such a remarkable rate.

Stress

Stress is the body's reaction to an alteration that will require a physical, mental or mental modification or response, there are two types of stress they are Eustress & problems.

-Eustress

This Is an excellent type of stress, this kind has an optimistic effect on a situation, for example a participant would be looks for the thrill of the danger but then relishes the thrills and feeling of satisfaction when it is over. Examples for this would be bungy jumping, free rock climbing ect.

-Distress

This is when the stress becomes to much and is then damaging. This is a bad type of stress.

Causes of stress

-Internal

Stress can also be self-generated internally for example having a low self-esteem. Unrealistic objectives being set and you also not having the ability to meet them maybe Self-criticism. All of them posted are inside factors and you will change them and figure out how to offer with it this is the fact that ability to handle the demands

-External

this is when external factors interfere with the problem for example if previous time a athlete ran 400 M and their time was bad they have questions in the mind because of a past experience and this courses stress.

-Symptoms of stress

There are 3 types of symptoms of stress and they're psychological, emotional and behavioural.

-Physiological

with this symptom we cant control and the symptoms could include increased heart rate, increased blood circulation pressure, increased sweating, increased respiration rate, decreased flow of blood to the skin, increased oxygen uptake and dry oral cavity.

-Psychological

Psychological symptoms are what we think and the way the mind reacts to situations

the symptoms for this may be that you are feeling overwhelmed, your capacity to focus and make decisions Is poor, you attention is not within you sport therefore you are thinking of other activities and you may feel out of control.

-Behavioural

This is exactly what one does and how we react the symptoms of this could include quick speaking, nail biting, pacing, yawning, trembling and elevating of your tone of voice.

Anxiety

Anxiety is a psychological and physiological point out characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioural components.

Anxiety can be either a short-term 'point out' or a long term "characteristic. " You can find types of anxiousness trait and condition.

-State

this is situational so that it comes and go with respect to the situation. so in a casino game it's likely you have a state anxiousness because you have troubled about the overall game and when you start to play you are then fine and don't feel anxious.

-Trait

this is the They are more likely to present state anxiety in circumstances with low anxiousness, such as normal day-to-day activities, they will most likely experience higher degrees of state anxiety in the presence of anxiety-generating stimuli.

-Symptoms

There are two kind of symptom, cognitive and somatic.

-Cognitive is all thoughts and concerns before an event. That is all negative toward the function symptoms could be, Indecision, Sense of bafflement, Feeling heavy, Mental poison, Poor focus and many more

-Somatic, this is physicological response. The symptoms of this are Increased blood pressure, Pounding heart, Increased respiration rate, Sweating, Clammy hands and feet, Butterflies in the stomach, Dry mouth area, Muscular tension and so many more.

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