Instrumental diagnosis of personality-semantic characteristics of the subject
Instrumental research is a way of studying a person by identifying emotional-motivational components of a person's psyche. The projectivity of this method follows from the emotional-volitional reflection of reality by the subject (the peculiarity of emotionality reflects the characteristics of the person's personality structure). Emotionality is recorded by the apparatus by evaluating the unique nature of physiological processes. This is the objectification of man's subjective life. The equipment not only registers the emotional background, but also causes its changes, creating a situation of stress, when a person is not able to control his reactions.
Affects were formed in the course of a long evolutionary development of man. They represent the corresponding reactions of the body to external and internal conditions that require the mobilization of internal resources in difficult situations. This explains why emotional stress is accompanied by a significant change in physiological reactions. With a single trigger mechanism and ensuring the emotional state, its consequences are individual. In the same person, depending on both personal and physiological characteristics, as well as on his initial emotional state, the same factors can cause or mobilize to activity, or panic, or confusion.
At present, there are more than a dozen different approaches to the consideration of the theoretical foundations of instrumental research.
On the one hand, the problem consists in revealing the main psycho-physiological mechanism that determines both the behavior of the person as a whole and the reaction of the subjects in stress. On the other hand, in the search for signs and indicators of the manifestation of human behavioral reactions as a projection of his personality.
In this key, the search for the determinant of behavior, as a rule, is transformed into the identification of the causes of the emergence of a certain emotional state. Traditionally, it is believed that the level of emotional stress, manifested in a change in the physiological functions of the body, is a consequence of the motivational background of people's behavior. At the same time, the level of emotional tension depends on the strength and direction of the motive.
A. N. Leontiev pointed out that the motive can only be a concrete, real object of human activity, which induces and, by transforming, directs behavior. And the goal-setting function makes sense of the behavior. Emotional coloring of actions appears in the case when a certain semantic component is formed in the subject's activity.
Emotion is a component of the sense-organizing motivational background. If the meaning of behavior corresponds to the established social, moral or physiological norms, then the emotional background is within the regulatory framework. If the subject knows that his behavior is contrary to the social or natural foundations, then his motif is transformed (as the subject of activity changes and becomes transformed) into the motive for distorting the truth. Apparently, here there is a conflict of motives. On the one hand, there is a true motive of behavior that forms a certain emotional background, on the other, a new, "artificial" motive - the desire to distort the real state of affairs, i.e. motivation of ego-protection. True and artificial motives come into conflict. Contrast their semantic components, which in turn create favorable conditions for the conflict of emotional components. It is the clash of semantic components that leads to emotional stress, reflected at the physiological level in the form of a change in the functional state of the organism.
Thus, the real event (with all its characteristics, attributes and properties) in the situation of instrumental research becomes the true motive of human behavior. If the subject tries to distort the truth (the true motive), hide it, i.e. comes into conflict with the real action (switching the goal of the action to the goal of concealing the truth - the "artificial" motive), then there is an emotional tension. Since emotions are directly related to the needful unconscious component of the psyche, it is difficult to manage it. Emotional tension is a consequence of the imbalance of the motivational and emotional balance between the objective event and its reflection in the individual's psyche (subjectively).
The deterrent of the formation of emotional stress may be the will. However, it is able to regulate human behavior only consciously. Deep psychophysiological mechanisms require deep regulation. Therefore, in this case, a special emotional-volitional preparation is necessary. With the help of the equipment, the change in the physiological reactions of the subject is fixed, which "clears" the true state of affairs from the social and individual layers of the psyche.
However, the determination of a certain response of a subject during testing can depend not only on the motivational components, but also on the psychophysiological features of a particular subject. Different subjects experience differently the real situation and the testing situation. Therefore, the individuality of a person can also be reflected in the level and dynamics of his emotional and motivational sphere.
There are several emotional-motivational theories, which are the basis for researching the personality with the help of hardware. This is the theory of motivational and physiological balance, the theory of external negative motivation (the theory of the threat of punishment), the theory of activation, the conditioned reflex theory, the information theory of emotions, the theory of novelty, etc.The theory of motivational-physiological balance is based on the notion that the human body can function normally only if the true state of affairs corresponds and the person realizes the adequacy of his behavior. Inadequate construction of one's own mode of action in relation to the real situation within the boundaries of ego protection from an unfavorable reality for a person, a person realizing this inadequacy falls into a state of stress. Even an organism in a state of inadequacy, causing stress, can not function normally and thus "rebel" against the lie. A change in the indicators of the functional state is demonstrated by the emotional stress of the subject.
The theory of external negative motivation (the theory of "threats of punishment") is a phenomenon associated with the experience of a man for his fate, for his future. This underlies the subject's ego-protective reaction to an unfavorable situation.
The activation theory determines that each of the given stimuli must have a degree of activation of the nervous processes in the body and, accordingly, a specific level of response reactions - a topic that is more relevant to the subject nervous system compared with neutral topics.Conditional-reflex theory. Any living organism, including man, is initially endowed with a system of unconditioned reflexes, which are the basis for the formation of emotional mechanisms. To the expressed mechanisms of activation of emotions usually include fear, anger and pleasure.
At the heart of conditioned reflexes is the life experience of a person. In the course of apparatus testing, the conditioned response is a person's reaction to a certain stimulus acquired through knowledge that is acquired in the course of an individual's vital activity, by assimilating the experience of other people or other information sources, creating a certain subjective attitude of a person to things that he did not meet before. In this case, an ego-protective reaction arises that affects the amount of emotional stress.
In the information theory of emotions II. V. Simonov (1970) argues that the magnitude of emotional stress is determined by the need for an action, an act, a change in social status, necessary and actually existing information about the event. This dependence is expressed by the formula
Э = П (Ин - Ис),
where E is the degree of emotional stress, P is the need to eliminate negative consequences, Y is information is necessary, Is is information existing.
The theory of novelty. In the practice of professional psychodiagnosis, the specificity of a person's behavior is known for the first time undergoing an apparatus examination, when the physiological responses to stimuli in the course of the study differ significantly from the reactions of the subject having this field is a certain experience.
The listed theories are connected with the anatomical, psychophysiological, social and spiritual systems of personality. The main factors that determine the emotional stress of the subjects when conducting instrumental studies are the level of motivation, the nature of the person, the state and well-being of the person and his psychophysiological characteristics.
The main characteristics of indicators used in instrumental studies include: electrodermal (skin-galvanic reaction - RGR), cardiovascular or cardiac component (pulse rate, photoplethysmogram, blood pressure), respiratory (upper and lower respiration), tremor and voice components.
In conclusion, readers should pay attention to the fact that the semantic projection, unlike other types of projective pictures, is a reflection of the integrity-semantic characteristics of the personality that can be registered in the diagnostic process and associative, and logical semantic, and instrumental ways. This registration takes place by evaluating the emotional component, which signals outside the internal semantic background, both on a conscious and unconscious level. Identification of a reliable semantic field of personality is carried out at the associative and psychophysiological levels. At the logical level, there is a personal distortion of the object space that is significant for a person. But this distortion occurs unconsciously, under the influence of individual traits and psychophysiological characteristics of people. According to distortions reflecting subjectivity, we see a semantic project of a person's specialness and guess about this essence.
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