Interactive Communication Function
Entering the process of communication, people not only receive and transmit information, but also seek to control, regulate, To organize at will the behavior of partners in communication. This function of communication is usually called interactive.
English psychotherapist F. Perls identifies two main positions in the conversation: the master of the situation and the subordinate side. The master of the situation behaves more authoritatively, he knows everything better than all. He is demanding, often resorting to threats. In the position of the subordinate party, a person requires protection, he is dependent, subordinate, deprived of initiative, power. This position, despite its apparent dependence and helplessness, allows much more maneuvering than the position of the master of the situation, and sometimes it is more profitable.
Situation analysis, depending on the position occupied by partners, develops in the transactional analysis - a direction that in recent decades has gained immense popularity around the world. The founder of transactional analysis E. Bern distinguishes three types of behavior of people in the process of communication, which he calls positions. This is the position of an adult, child, and parent.
It is important that the parent, the child and the adult are not abstract schemes of behavior, but rather concrete and meaningful memories available to each person that can not always be arbitrarily recalled, but which still exist and exert a perceptible influence on behavior person.
Having heard certain words and intonations from a partner, we can roughly assess the situation. If we hear irritation or displeasure at our address, then the situation is threatening, if frightening, didactic intonations are heard, this situation of teaching or upbringing. Can we, by using any expression, influence the situation, change the tone of the conversation, the direction of the further development of events? Of course yes! Depending on the situation, we choose one or another position of communication, and if it does not allow us to achieve the desired result, then we change the position to another, more acceptable in this situation.
By organizing interaction in communication, we use not only positions, but also communication styles. The style of communication is a tendency to approach a certain way in most situations. Allocate an authoritarian, democratic, liberal-conniving, altruistic, manipulative styles of communication.
Authoritarian is a style in which a person behaves towards others authoritatively, directively, rigidly distributing roles among members of the group, not allowing them to go beyond them, carefully controlling and guarding others even in small things. Authoritarian leader almost all major management functions are concentrated in their hands. It does not allow members of the group to discuss or challenge its actions and decisions.
Table 1. Key characteristics of parent, adult and child position
With a democratic style, a person seeks to take into account not only his own point of view and interests, but also the opinions of other people. He discusses his ideas and decisions with others, can even support an opinion that runs counter to his own.
Liberal-conniving style - a style in which there is no clear message of communication. The assessment of the situation and the opinion of a person can change many times under the influence of even the most insignificant factors.
When manipulating a partner, they are treated as a means of achieving only their goals, by flattering or understating their own achievements and abilities. In contrast to the authoritarian style of communication, between the manipulator and his victim remain an excellent relationship. In manipulative communication, the partner pinches a stereotype that is considered the most profitable at the moment. Manipulators are not born, but they begin to manipulate others usually very early. Hardly having learned to walk, the child already knows that in order to achieve his own, he sometimes needs to "walk" and sometimes scream. Not always crying children want to cry. They just want to get one or the other from their parents, and cry at the moment - their weapons.
Manipulative communication is an extremely common type of communication. A huge number of professional tasks implies exactly manipulative communication. Possession of the technique of manipulation allows in many cases to achieve the result as effectively as possible. And even if both partners have their own goals for changing the point of view of the interlocutor, the one who will prove to be the more skilful manipulator will win. the one who knows the partner better, understands the goals better, better knows the technique of communication.
Due to the frequent professional use of manipulative communication, good technique for its use and constant successes, a person sometimes starts to consider it to be the only correct one. In this case, all communication can be reduced to manipulation, which is fundamentally wrong. In many cases, manipulation is completely unjustified.
Altruistic communication is sometimes called sacrificial. It assumes that a person disinterestedly comes to the aid of other people, often at the same time sacrificing his own interests.
Given its style and position of communication, as well as the style and position of the interlocutor, timely changing them to more adequate ones, it is possible to organize effective interaction in the process of communication with great success.
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