Interpersonal Perception and Understanding - Psychology

Interpersonal Perception and Understanding

Of all aspects of communication, the problem of human perception of a person is the most studied. The concept of social perception (perception) includes the reflection of social reality and the person by the person (interpersonal perception).

The initial concept of "human perception of a person" was insufficient to indicate the fact of knowing subjects of communication. Subsequently, the concept of the "human comprehension", , is added, which involves connecting to the perception process during communication and all other cognitive processes.

An important role in understanding belongs to sociopsychological observation - a personality property that allows you to mark in a person's behavior a subtle but essential for understanding the features. This is an integrative characteristic, which includes the features of cognitive processes, as well as the life and professional experience of the individual.

At the heart of socio-psychological observation are various types of sensitivity:

observational sensitivity is associated with a person's ability to adequately perceive the interlocutor, while simultaneously understanding the content characteristics of his personality and the situation of communication;

theoretical sensitivity involves the selection and use of the most appropriate conceptual representations for a more accurate understanding and predicting of people's behavior;

nomothetic sensitivity allows you to understand the representatives of different social communities and predict their behavior;

ideographic sensitivity is associated with an understanding of the uniqueness of each individual and distancing it from the general characteristics of groups.

A certain amount of knowledge and the level of the formation of skills and abilities that allow you to adequately orient yourself to a person in different situations of communication, objectively evaluate other people, predict their behavior, constitute socio-psychological competence . It includes interpersonal and communicative competence.

Interpersonal competence refers to interpersonal contacts of a subject.

Communicative competence assumes situational adaptability of a person through free possession of verbal and non-verbal means of communication.

To generalize the numerous results of research on interpersonal perception, it is expedient to use the system approach (BF Lomov), the constituent parts of which are the subject, object, and process of knowing man by man.

1. The subject of interpersonal cognition is an evolving dynamic system with many characteristics. The features of the perceiver depend on its objective and subjective attributes, affecting the depth, all-roundness, objectivity and speed of knowing another person. These include sex, age, nationality, temperament, mental states, health status, attitudes, communication experience, professional and personal characteristics, and the like.

Sexual differences significantly affect the process of cognition. Women in comparison with men are emotionally more predisposed to penetration into the inner world of the interlocutor. They have higher rates of socio-psychological observation, although men more accurately determine the level of intelligence of the interlocutor.

Age affects the accuracy of perception and understanding. Teenagers and young men primarily pay attention to physical data and expressive characteristics. Children and adolescents often fail to understand adults and adequately assess them. As they acquire life experience, they begin to perceive and evaluate people in various ways. Perceiving more precisely determines the age of persons who are close to him by years, and more often mistakes in case of a big difference. Mature people can understand both adolescents and the elderly.

Nationality. A person perceives the world around him through the prism of his own about the national way of life, through the ethnic customs, traditions, habits that he has formed, etc. If the perceiver has the experience of communicating with representatives of different ethnic groups, then the influence of one's nationality on the perception of the perceived will be insignificant.

Temperament. The process of knowing another person is influenced by certain characteristics of temperament. It is experimentally established that the higher the extrovertedness of the perceiver, the more accurately he identifies the expressive characteristics and takes less into account the situation in which he is located. Introverts are distrustful of expressive characteristics: they are more accurate in the assessments of perceivers and operate with representations about the most probable states of the object. Uncommunicative and emotionally unstable people more successfully recognize negative emotional states (AA Bodalev). Extroverts in other people are primarily interested in the external side of behavior, the physical components of the appearance of the personality and other moments in which information similar to the data inherent in them is contained.

• Mental states. Regardless of whether a person is tired or rested, he is concentrated or scattered at a given moment, these and other mental states necessarily affect the formation of the image of the perceiver. As evidenced by the research results, the state of health and psychotype of the perceiver affect the process of cognition of other people. For example, neurotics in comparison with schizophrenics more accurately assess mental states and interpersonal relationships of people.

• Installation. The results of the research show that the installation on the perception of other people with a position for a given person can be both relatively stable, and range from negative hard (effect of hardening) to softness and benevolence (the effect of indulgence). Value orientations guide the subject to the perception and fixation of significant features for him in other people, and often this happens unconsciously.

Communication experience accumulates contacts of the subject with representatives of different social groups. The more and more varied were the contacts with people in the subject, the more accurately he perceives them.

Profession. Different types of professional activity assume a different amount of communication with people. Public professions actively form social and psychological competence.

Personal characteristics. It is experimentally established that self-confident individuals, in most cases, evaluate other people as benevolent, located towards them. Insecure individuals often perceive other people as gravitating toward coldness and not located to them (AA Bodalev).

2. The appearance of the cognizable person (the object of cognition) includes the physical and social aspects:

physical appearance are anatomical features, physiological, functional and paralinguistic characteristics, each of which has many parameters:

social appearance assumes appropriate appearance design, speech characteristics, activity characteristics.

3. The process of knowing a person is not a one-time act. It includes feedback from the object of perception, elements of communication and interaction.

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