Interrogation procedures - Methodological bases and problems of psychology

Polling procedures

The poll is a method aimed at collecting data on opinions, people's conscious beliefs about various subjects and phenomena; about the features of motivation, social attitudes of respondents.

The survey method came to psychology from the social sciences, primarily from sociology. Nevertheless, this method is widely used in virtually all branches of psychological science. Psychologists in many respects are attracted to the fact that it can be used to investigate large groups of people, since respondents more often agree to answer questionnaires and interviews than to participate in experiments or long-term testing (some tests contain more than 500 questions). The advantage of the survey method is also the apparent simplicity in the preparation of the survey and its conduct.

Usually, the survey is used in the early stages of studying the problem, in order to fill the existing information deficit, limit or expand the field of research.

At the end of the survey, the survey is used to refine, expand and control the data. Usually this happens at the final stages of the study, the main methods of which exclude the direct contact of the researcher and the subject, suggesting the clarification of certain scientific results. In such cases, using a survey, you can find out the data and facts that reflect the subjective picture of the respondent's inner world, which sometimes is not available to standardized methods. If you recall the example of school anxiety, described in the previous paragraph, then in this case, you can conduct a survey to determine the causes and phenomenology of school anxiety of each student. In the situation of scientific research, the results of the survey will help correctly interpret the findings, and in the case of a psychologist's practical activity, create an adequate psychological assistance program.

And at the same time, when using the questionnaire method, there are certain difficulties:

1) large volume of heterogeneous empirical data;

2) the complexity of mathematical processing;

3) the possible social desirability of answers, distorting the results of the study;

4) difficulty in writing interviews and formulating questions.

The poll method has several varieties.

In the form of presentation:

• application form (written survey);

• interview (oral survey).

From the coverage of the sample:

• a continuous survey is characterized by the whole set of respondents;

• selective - covers only part of the general population;

• focus group surveys;

• expert evaluation - a survey in which respondents are experts in the issue under study.

According to the procedure:

• Individual survey;

• Group Poll.

By the way of communication:

• The contact survey is characterized by the fact that the interviewer is in direct contact with the interviewee;

• The distance poll is remote, the questionnaires are sent by mail, distributed and filled without the presence of the researcher.

By frequency:

• single survey;

• Re-poll.

On the form of structuring:

• a standardized survey (the wording of questions and their sequence are defined in advance);

• Not a standardized survey (only a general outline of the questions asked is formulated, their wording and sequence may vary depending on the interview situation and the respondent's answers);

• In a semi-standardized survey questions are divided into mandatory and additional, the list and sequence of the first are defined, the second ones are set depending on the situation or from answers to mandatory questions.

The first step in developing a survey is to identify a problem that needs to be investigated and compared with the capabilities of the method. For example, by the method of interrogation it is impossible to adequately study the structure of the nonverbal intellect and it is perfectly permissible to study the satisfaction with the chosen educational institution or work, self-perception, self-esteem, the interests of the subject, etc.

In accordance with the selected issues, it is necessary to carefully consider which aspects of the phenomenon being studied are important to learn directly from the subject himself, to determine the points that are significant for the study in order to ensure its completeness and completeness.

The next stage is the selection