Interviewer Behavior - General Psychological Workshop

Interviewer Behavior

Using for the research of the method of conversation makes very high demands on the interviewer himself, both on his non-verbal behavior in the interview process, and on the ability to understand his questions and answers, his ability to understand the non-verbal behavior of the respondent and, conversations. The conversation should pass at ease, the situation should not look so that the interviewer constantly rushes, flips through his notes and rereads the program during the interview, trying to determine what question should be asked next. Otherwise, the respondent will not be able to take seriously the participation in the study, and it will not be possible to establish the proper contact.

The interviewer's behavior should ensure that the subject develops a feeling of security and security in the situation of interaction, maintain the attitude towards sincerity and openness, and inspire confidence in the researcher.

First of all, to establish and maintain a trusting relationship with the respondent, the interviewer must show his disposition towards him, show by his behavior that he is interested in what the interviewee is saying and in his personality as a whole. To achieve this, active listening methods are used.

During the interview, the researcher and respondent should maintain eye contact. However, the interviewer should not look closely at the respondent, and this behavior will lead to an undesirable effect.

The interviewer should take an active part in the perception of the respondent's words: nod, smile where appropriate, use the paraphrasing technique to emphasize that all attention is focused on the speaker's words. All this will show the respondent the interest of the interviewer.

The interviewer must demonstrate the acceptance of the respondent and implement a non-price position in relation to his words. The respondent must feel that, whatever his opinion, no matter what the interviewer answers, he will not be criticized, his words will not be misinterpreted, and his opinions and assessments will not be disputed.

In no case should the interviewer express his opinion with respect to the issues under discussion, his position must be completely neutral. Failure to comply with this recommendation may lead to distortions in the respondent's answers, to the fact that he will be closed and will not give sincere answers. The interviewee should not have any tips or hints as to what his answers should be, otherwise all the data collected can be questioned. It is necessary to refrain completely from giving advice on the respondent's information or commenting on the opinions expressed by him, even if the respondent openly asks about it. It should not be forgotten that in the research interview the main goal is to collect information, and the goal is not to influence the respondent at all.

The interviewer should pay attention not only to the content of the respondent's answers, but also to the non-verbal behavior accompanying them. In the peculiarities of facial expressions, movements, intonations, etc., important moments of understanding of the said points can be manifested. By non-verbal behavior, you can indirectly determine whether the respondent is sincere, how painful and important is the question for him, etc. In some cases, non-verbal behavior may indicate to the interviewer that some topics should not be discussed more deeply, as this causes discomfort in the subject, that somewhere the question should be formulated differently, because the respondent has misunderstood it, etc.

Analyzing and fixing (if necessary) non-verbal behavior of the respondent can provide a clue to a correct understanding of his answers when analyzing data.

The interviewer should closely follow the content side of the conversation, making every effort to ensure that all information has been explicated in as much detail as possible: ask, ask

make clarifications, take an interest in the details, etc. Hc is worth betting on general knowledge & quot ;: all terms used by the respondent and slang expressions should get a clear decoding. Otherwise, it may happen that the interviewer, having decided that the words spoken by the respondent are so clear, in reality will understand something different under them or will not have a clear idea of ​​what the ego really is. To clarify these points, phrases like "You mentioned ... can you use it ... Could you tell us more about this?" What does this mean?

It is necessary to ensure that all the information told by the respondent was formulated as clearly and clearly as possible for the listener. Responses of the respondent should be as detailed as possible in order to avoid ambiguity in their interpretation at the stage of processing the results.

The interviewer must clearly follow the respondent's answers, remember what was said and, in accordance with this, change the course of the interview. For example, it is necessary to avoid situations when a question is asked (in accordance with the program of the conversation), the answer to which in fact will already be heard when discussing another issue. This can create an impression on the respondent that he is not being listened to, and lower his motivation to continue participating in the interview.

In addition, the researcher should think in advance how he will behave if something goes wrong: the respondent decides to interrupt the conversation or refuses to discuss any topics, or if there are any external disturbances or the like. This is especially important for those researchers who do not yet have enough experience in conducting interviews, and this will allow them not to get lost in a difficult situation.

The appearance of the interviewer can also affect the quality of the interview, creating certain impressions about the status of the researcher and having (or not having) a trustworthy relationship with him. A common recommendation is the observance in the clothes of a standard everyday style that indirectly confirms the seriousness of the researcher's attitude to the work being done, but at the same time does not emphasize the differences between him and the respondent. The interviewer should not look neither too strict nor too casual.

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