INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH, FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES...

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY

FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF PSYCHOLOGIST

As a result of studying this chapter, students will: know

• the main functional roles ( labor posts ) of a psychologist;

• the main tasks solved by psychologists in the field of counseling, diagnosis and correction;

• Specificity of psychology as a research activity; be able to

• distinguish between problems solved by psychologists-diagnosticians, consultants and researchers;

own

• Basic ideas about the specifics of psychological activity.

Labor posts psychologist

The term labor post proposed in his works one of the prominent Soviet and United States psychologists, who did a lot for the development of such an applied branch of psychological science as the psychology of work, EA Klimov. By this term he designated one of the forms of the existence of the profession. According to this Klimov definition, the "labor post" - this is "limited by the division of labor and in one way or another fixed area of ​​application of human forces, calculated to create something valuable for society - material things, information, service actions, functional beneficial effects, aesthetic impressions, social mood, orderly flow of social processes .

Klimov also describes a number of subsystems of the "labor post" . Among them he distinguishes the following.

Goals, ideas about the result of work. The most common goals of the psychologist's work are psychological diagnosis, explanation, prediction and correction of behavior, based on knowledge of the laws of mental functioning.

The subject (the source material is perhaps a thing, the situation of uncertainty, any system: biological, technical or inanimate natural, social, sign, conceptual, artistic-aesthetic). In psychology, the features and regularities of the functioning of the psyche, factors affecting their formation and functioning, sources of errors and disturbances in the functioning of the psyche are considered as the subject.

The system of means of labor. The means of labor of a psychologist include various methods of diagnosis, impact, correction and scientific research of mental processes. To master the general principles of the use and independent development of the means of labor will help the psychological practice.

System of professional duties (assigned labor functions). The general list of the duties and functions of a psychologist is very difficult to compile, and in some cases even impossible due to the variety of areas in which a psychologist can be useful. Some ideas about the duties of a psychologist can be found in the job descriptions of those organizations in which the rate of a psychologist is compulsory (for example, in kindergartens, schools, clinics). Psychologists often have to work out for themselves rules of work and prove their usefulness and need for organization. Discussion of the most fundamental ideas about the functions and responsibilities of a psychologist will be devoted to other paragraphs of this chapter.

Sphere of applied work of a psychologist

A complete list of all those areas where a psychologist could be useful is hardly possible. To create it would have to list all the areas of human activity. since in all these areas the psychologist will have an application. As an example of the diversity of the forms of work and functions of a psychologist and to illustrate the problem of a general description of his duties, we will give a selective list of some such areas, borrowed from a textbook, whose goal is acquaintance of readers with the profession of a psychologist. This list is supplemented by a list of tasks that applied psychologists in these areas.

1. Space and aviation psychology, aimed at optimizing the psychological conditions of the pilots, airport managers, other flight services employees, and also optimizing the training of pilots and cosmonauts, providing medical and psychological rehabilitation after flights, etc.

The main goals and objectives of these two areas of work of the psychologist are similar. These are:

- Optimization of working conditions for pilots and dispatchers;

- optimization of the complexity of the tasks they solve;

establishing interaction in the team, from the coherence of the actions of which much depends in emergency situations;

- overcoming the stress associated with responsibility and other burdens.

2. Psychology of work and psychology of management (organizational psychology). Sometimes in the psychology of labor, psychology of management , the psychology of entrepreneurial activity, etc.

The aims and tasks of the applied psychologist in these areas can be divided into the goals and tasks of working with personnel:

motivating staff and developing motivation programs;

- creating a psychological climate in the organization and maintaining a particular organizational culture;

- Adaptation in the team of new employees;

as well as the goals and objectives of working with the management team:

- ensuring uninterrupted, rapid information flow and minimization of its losses and distortions;

- load optimization

- teambuilding;

- staff assessment.

3. Medical psychology and pathopsychology , the goals and objectives of which are:

the study of mental factors affecting the development of diseases, their prevention and treatment;

- the study of the impact of certain diseases on the psyche;

- study of violations of the development of the psyche;

- the study of the nature of the patient's relationship with medical personnel and the surrounding microenvironment;

- development of psychological methods of psychological impact in medical and preventive purposes;

help doctors in relation to responsibility, professional stress, emotional burnout.

Pedagogical psychology deals with the psychological characteristics of the education of children and adults, as well as problems of higher, second higher, additional, continuous and advanced vocational education. By this, psychologists solve the following problems:

- diagnosis of mental development of children, assessment of their abilities and psychological characteristics;

- the adaptation of the child to school, the resolution of problems associated with deviations in education, learning difficulties;

help pedagogical staff and parents, especially in terms of caring for the child;

- support and counseling of school and parent staff on issues of interaction with children and upbringing;

- counseling and teamwork with school staff and parents on the problems of students associated with the school, and on the problems of the school staff as professionals;

- development of teaching methods and materials, convenient, interesting, adequate to age, and adapting existing pedagogical materials to the age characteristics of students.

5. Legal and Legal Psychology , whose goals and objectives include:

- the establishment of leading motives in the behavior of a person and motivating actions that go against the generally accepted rules of conduct;

the establishment of individual psychological characteristics that can significantly affect behavior and the formation of intent to commit a crime;

establishing the structure of the criminal group and its relationships on the basis of available data on the psychological characteristics of participants in this group;

assessing the veracity and accuracy of the testimony, assessing mitigating circumstances and sanity;

- factors of decision-making by the judge and the jury.

6. The psychology of tourism and leisure activities , aimed at creating conditions for effective recreation:

- the organization of space and objects for recreation in accordance with the principles of convenience and accessibility (usability);

- the development of modes of use and recreation programs, tourist routes in accordance with physical, age and other psychological characteristics;

- designing leisure and travel opportunities for people with disabilities;

- the development of attractions with the functions of psychological simulators (rope parks, simulators with the effect of presence, etc.).

7. Sports Psychology . meaning psychological help to athletes:

- in overcoming negative mental states developing in pre-competitive and competitive conditions

- in the formation of a constructive competitive mood;

- in the development of training methods that enhance their effectiveness, taking into account the psychological characteristics of athletes;

- in establishing cooperation and resolving conflicts in teamwork

- in overcoming stress, rehabilitation after trauma.

8. The psychology of mass communication and advertising, assumes the use of extensive psychological knowledge from the field of perception, emotion, motivation and decision-making for the formation of attitudes, public opinion and a positive attitude to the product. At the same time, applied psychologists solve the following problems:

developing tools to attract attention to a product or idea;

- application of manipulation methods in relation to decision-making processes to create a more favorable impression of the product and lead to a decision on its acquisition;

- the development of methods for creating an impression of a product or idea;

- evaluation of the effectiveness of the advertising impact;

- research and formation of interests and motivation;

- the study of the image of the brand, brand.

9. Political psychology, where the psychologist participates in the organization of electoral campaigns and inter-party political struggle. His tasks in this case are similar to those that are solved by a psychologist working in the field of advertising and mass media, since the ultimate goal of the election campaign is very similar to the purpose of advertising - to attract as many people ready to support the client as possible. But here there are n specific tasks:

- the development of a popular image of the politician (a description of the facts of the biography, a hobby for which he spends time and money, leisure and other activities that can affect his public image);

- Speechwriting (design of speech texts, interviews and any information that the politician communicates about himself or his organization, to create a certain image that meets the stated goals and attractive to the target audience).

10. Military psychology, where the activity of a psychologist is very diverse, including in connection with the peculiarities of life in a military collective and all sorts of emergency situations connected with military service. Among the most important and complex tasks solved by military psychologists, you can list:

- the organization of relations in the military collective as a special kind of collective with problems that arise because of the high regulation of the way of life;

- Rehabilitative, corrective and preventive work with people who have passed "hotspots";

- the psychological preparation of fighters for action in extreme situations.

The employee's rights system (for fair and timely labor payment, working conditions that are safe for health and life and other rights in accordance with the existing labor legislation). In some professions, specialists have additional rights, as a rule,

associated with the harmful effects to which they are exposed, performing their work, or with special conditions of the work itself. Psychologists have no such special rights.

Production environment (subject, information, social working conditions). Such conditions in the work of a psychologist are very diverse and therefore difficult to generalize. We will touch upon some questions related to these conditions, with further discussion of the "labor posts" psychologist.

Depending on the tasks to be performed by the psychologist, labor posts in psychology traditionally divided into three large groups: scientific research, applied work and actually psychological practice.

Within the framework of research practice, a psychologist identifies the patterns of the functioning of mental processes and their interactions; factors and conditions affecting this operation; phenomena and influences that disrupt their normal work, and also develops tools and methods for research and application of professional psychological knowledge in relevant public practices.

The tasks solved by a psychologist in the framework of such practice include general tasks of scientific research that are solved in any other field of science. With regard to psychology, these tasks are a description of psychological phenomena, the identification of their causes and effects, the development of controls and, if necessary, the overcoming of undesirable psychological phenomena.

Psychology as an applied discipline assumes that the psychologist serves and optimizes the achievement of goals relevant to non-psychological spheres of people's activities. These goals can be achieved without his participation, since in their implementation the psychologist is not a specialist and an expert. It can be connected only at certain stages of achieving the goal in order to facilitate their passage. The psychologist helps specialists in these areas to solve pressing problems more successfully with less effort. Actually, this is its main goal - not to create a certain finished product, but to facilitate the process of its creation by expert experts.

Here, as examples, we can mention the alleviation of the patient's psychological suffering caused by severe treatment of the disease, providing a better understanding between the doctor and the patient, the child and the teacher, finding the most convenient way to organize the workspace or intuitively understand the software shell interface. By itself, the end product - curing a patient, mastering a school program or creating a computer interface - is the merit and result of the work of other professionals, but the participation of a psychologist allows to achieve a better result with less losses.

The area of ​​actual psychological practice involves the allocation of a special range of tasks, the solution of which is aimed at changes in the functioning of the human psyche. Unlike the applied areas of psychological practice, here the psychologist himself determines the goals of his work and the ways to achieve them, determines the parameters of the result and the creep

Theories of its achievement. The areas of psychological practice include psychological diagnosis, psychological counseling and psychological correction.

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