INTRODUCTION TO STRESS

People experience stress in private life and at the job place. Folks have to work effectively against time and within the parameter of various regulations. It is not always possible to make an organizational climate conducive to work. Various departments, groups and external environment factors affect individual behaviour. Minimal level of stress is necessary for organizations to use effectively. Excessive stress is harmful for the average person as it causes mental and physical disequilibrium and subsequently leads to physical and mental disturbance. People suffer from high blood circulation pressure, coronary attack when stress is beyond control of the humans. Hence, it is essential to identify causes of stress and modify behaviour so the individual energy is directed towards organizational productivity and healthy organization climate is established.

Hans Selye1, a medical researcher first used term "Stress" to describe the body's

biological response mechanism. He defined stress as "the nonspecific response of your body to any demand". He views that stress is the spice of life, the lack of stress is death.

Stress is usually considered to be negative and caused due to something bad. Thus stress refers to distress. Ivancevich and Matterson define stress as "the interaction of the individual with the surroundings" According to Beehr and Newman2, stress is a condition due to the interaction of individuals and their jobs and characterised by changes within people that force these to deviate off their normal functioning. Stress is a dynamic condition in which a person is faced with lot of constraints while functioning in the organisation. Stress causes discomfort, which contributes to disequilibrium in the individual's attitude. Stress is not necessarily negative in nature. In a very broader sense it is discomfiture whether it creates problems.

Stress is also a source of inspiration. When there is a stress for just about any work it leads to

higher performance. When stress is gravest, it reduces employee productivity. But there

are example where people may get immune to stress having no negative effect on their

performance. Such people do not get tense. This type of immunity is achieved through

constant experience and training. John M. Ivancevich and Michael T. Matterson have

defined stress as "adoptive response, mediated by individual characteristics and/

or psychological processes, that is a consequence of any external action, situation or event that places special physical and/or psychological demands after a person". Since it is clear from this is that stress is caused due to external factors, situations or events. These have adverse impact on the average person characteristics and psychological processes. These together put yet another burden or demands on individual, hence the strain. External factors can include social setting, work ethics in the business, leadership styles, option of resources, workload, level of technology and the task environment. The internal factors that are effected are psychological in nature and includes emotions, ego state, attitude, perception, motivational factors, need and demographics. If employees feel that external factors are of very little consequence and have no compelling effect the stress is not formed within the minds of individuals. High desire, uncertainty, result of promotion examination, unrealized ambition could cause stress to the average person.

Stress shouldn't be confused with anxiety or nervous tension and damaging. They

occur as regular features oftentimes and also have no long - lasting effect on the working capacities of the employees. Similarly, only physical impacts will not be stress unless it is felt by the mind and heart. The psychological and physical impacts are visible in the form of stress. Anxiety is the reason for stress however, not stress itself.

Stress is generally of a mild nature and one recovers from it easily. Once a person gets

used to environmental factors and people with whom one generally works on a daily basis, there is absolutely no existence of stress. It is the work environment, plant, people and situations, which is not used to, creates tension and resultant stress. The stress diminishes little by little when one get accustomed to it. However the stress can be mild, stiff and chronic in nature. Mild stress is obvious when person develops insufficient appetite and high blood circulation pressure.

The stress becomes stiffer if they are not carefully countered. When stress attains a

chronic stage, in which a person develops instability, frustration and feel uncomfortable and cannot cope up with problems. It influences physical efficiency and subsequently a psychological strength. This stage is named "Burn out". In this stage individual is emotionally weakened.

The stage of burn-out is reached when an individual does not achieve his objective. He

exhibits irritation, errors, frustration and apathy. Executives are highly susceptible to burn up due to ruthless in the work environment. In such situation they resort to change the work that further increases existing chronic burn-out situation as they are unable cope up with the changed environment. In such situation employees should resort to neuro -

psycho treatment. In case there is aggravation of the situation circumstances of "Trauma" is reached.

Trauma is a very serious form of stress. It occurs in the business where employees find it difficult to adjust. This can be caused due to pressure of work, late working hours, inability of employees to fulfill social obligation and poor time management. The work place trauma is carried home by employees where they develop various psychological disorder. Non adjustment in work place for some time leads to suspension and firing of employee. Stress can be avoided by adopting an approach of co-operation, help the fellow employee in distress and social interaction with affected individuals.

SOURCES OF JOB STRESS

Organization, Group and individual have effect on the performance of employment. Enviornment also effects adversely on the efficiency of the average person.

1. Environment Factors

There are innumerable environmental factors that contain caused significant amounts of work pressure on the employees. Ivancevich and Matterson have recognized societal, economic, financial, cultural, familial and technological factors that have tremendous influence on mental health of the employees. Societal factors have forced both husband and wife to do the job to maintain a high level of life style. Government NGOs and other voluntary organizations have introduced various schemes for the welfare of people. Though the life generally has increased however the immunity in the torso has decreased to a great level and large number of people suffer from various disease caused by work stress. Folks have become more ambitious. They need their children to do well in life this causes stress.

Environmental stressors like family demands and obligation, economical and financial

conditions, race, caste, creed, ethnic identity, relocation due to transfer cause adverse

effect on individuals. Recent communal violence surrounding the world have changed political scenario, defence affiliations of nations have siphoned from the large resources toward defence preparedness. People are moving into a fearful environment. These problems need to be solved by educating people and diverting their energies to the basic objective of the organisaion.

Science and technology should be used for the development and progress of people and not for destruction purpose. All family problems should be resolved by assisting the other person and that the people should figure out how to live in an atmosphere of peace co-existence ought to be the keyword.

2. Organizational Stressors

Organizational stressors can be classified into mission statement, strategies, policies, organizational structure and design, reporting channels, communication, various processes,

systems and last however, not the least the working conditions. Organization mission and

subsequent departmental goals have an extended lasting impact on the employees. Over ambitions

goals leave employees more streached for achieving the same. Good organizational polices,

procedures, rules, regulations keep employees in high spirit. On the contrary, adhockism,

inadequate compensation, rigid rules, ambiguous organizational policies and faulty job

design cause tremendous amount of stress.

Job related policies must be sound and updated. Task design should include job

autonomy, task variety so that employee derive pleasure while at the job. Workplace, and

work environment are two very critical indicators. Poor hygiene in workplace, inadequate

space, light, insufficient physical security at the job place are stressors. Stress is caused by

inadequate support from subordinates, conflicting job requirements, inadequate and poor

performance measurement, and insufficient empowerment. Managerial style, role of superior

boss, command and control mechanism leave much to be desired from Indian organizations.

Policies should be sound and employee participation must be ensured at each level. It

must be understood that wisdom and innovativeness is widely spread in the workers, it is

the ability of mangers to recognize and canalize for organizational betterment.

3. Group Stressors

Hawthorne studies have established the impact of group cohesiveness, group norms and

importance of group objective for attainment of organizational goals. Lack of cohesiveness

creates conflict. Employees must be given full opportunities to build up themselves. People

join group for social security that should be provided. Managers must be sure that job well

done is recognized, omission upon this account creates stress like situation in the minds of

the employees. Group social events and group activities must be organized on a regular

bases. Managers should form the part of group, which should not be based on rank and

position. Employee morale must be kept high to avoid group stress.

4. Individual Stressors

Personal life and events of official life cannot be separated. Events of marriage, divorce,

death in the family has a impressive effect on work situation. Personal life difficulties

are highly stressful.

(a) Job Security

Job and career enhancement may become a way to obtain stress. Job security is one of the major reasons for an employee. Insecurity increases during times of recession. The chance of losing job, specially when an employee is the sole bread earner for the whole family is very stressful. Another reason behind job related stress is promotion or enhancement of appointment.

A person must have employment commensurate with his qualification. Promotion must be related to efficiency and due care should be exercised in this regard. Nothing is more stressful a junior employee being appointed as a senior to an equally competent person.

(b) Relocation

Relocation relates to transfer of your person to a different place. Transfers upsets the day to day routine of individuals. The fear of working at new location with differing people itself is stressful. Unpredictability about new work place and creating new relationship cause anxiety. Transfer also creates problems for members of the family. It might be admission in schools, adjustment to social environment, house and could even be language. In case one has to search a fresh job at a different location, the strain is even greater.

(c) Changes in life structure

Span of life has many facets. A few of these are socio-economic environment, culture,

systems, religion, race, education and person's interaction with society in various roles.

If all these aspects are favorable, then your stress is minimal, stress is also dependant on ability of an person to deal up with it and the faith. If someone's life is stable and move with a slow pace, there are less stress and even more ability to handle stress. While somebody who has great ambition and moves with fast pace struggles to cope up with stress.

(d) Stress and Behaviour

Stress is circumstances of mind which reflects biochemical reactions in our body.

Environmental and internal forces cause sense of anxiety, tension and depression to human being. As stress is the non specific response of the body to any demand, it's important to understand specific or routine activities that cause stress. You will discover two types of activities.

Desirable activities and undesirable activities. Both these activities create stress. The

stress created by desirable and successful effects is named "eustress". Eustress is a confident, healthy and developmental stress response. It causes better performance and a more adjusted personality. In eustress situation, we learn how to deal with the situation better.

It improves our capacity to deal with stressful situations. Stress created by undesirable

outcomes is known "distress". It really is mainly the distress form of stress which causes

undesirable effects on physical and psychological well - being of the person. Highly stressful activities weakens individuals ability to cope up with various situations. Equally extremely higher level of stress is harmful and damaging, extremely low degree of stress is also equally harmful. It causes boredom, reduces innovativeness and ability to face challenges. Thus moderate level of stress is desirable for higher-level of performance.

Physiological Response

When stress appears, immediate biochemical changes take place. Pulse and heightening of all body senses. Serious health problems occur as body faces stress for long time frame. Baron5 figured stress could lead to break down of body's immune systems and could lead to serious health issues such as high blood circulation pressure, ulcer and even coronary attack. Higher level stress can cause physical changes that threaten our health and wellness and well-being.

Psychological Response

People have different degrees of handling stress. Those who find themselves highly afflicted by stress

tend to be depressed and display lack of self confidence. They believe they have lost the battle in handling a situation and create a feeling of helplessness and elicit sympathy from others. They have a greater concern with unknown, display irritating behaviour, become impatient and have a tendency to blame others for the inefficiency. Workers who are seriously afflicted loose confidence in themselves and display a minimal productivity. To overcome this example, individuals should be kept busy, subjected to promotional cadres and subjected to regular physical exercises. This reduces work stress and help individual to build up.

Behavioral Response

Chohen6 completed studies on the impact of stress on human-being. According to the study

people under continuous stress behave differently when compared with folks who are

emotionally balanced. High level of stress is usually associated with smoking, increased

use of alcohol and consumption of drugs. They can be either defensive or offensive in their

behaviour. Stress induces irrational interpersonal behaviour. They withdraw from the

social environment and confine themselves to isolation.

Frustration

Frustration is a form of behaviour which occurs when a person is prevented from reaching a goal or objective. It identifies obstruction or impediment to goal oriented behaviour.

Frustration is caused firstly due to delay in getting advancement or recognition through

a promotion is insight. One even get frustrated looking forward to somebody to meet at a scheduled time and date. Secondly non option of various resources. A faculty member may not have the ability to carryout research work because he's over burdened with other responsibilities.

He may get frustrated due to non - option of time resource. The 3rd cause of

frustration is non attainment of goal. For example failure in the examination, non

attainment of production or sales target, failure to get promotion are some of the causes

of frustration which are manifested in stress.

Anxiety

Jit S Chandan7 explains "anxiety" as a feeling of inability and helplessness in formulating appropriate responses for dealing with the anticipated negative outcome. It occurs when a decision has to be made but the outcome of the decision can have positive as well as negative consequences. Anxiety also occur when there may be situation when one will not know as to what is right. For instance, a worker is serving within an organization for over ten years and fully content with the organizational culture but asked to go on promotion to a different organization and also to a far away place. Hammer and Organ8 explains various causes of anxiety in the work environment. They explained that "difference in power in the business which leave people who have a sense of vulnerability to administrative decisions adversely affecting them. They are as under:-

(a) Frequent changes in organizations, which will make existing behaviour plans obsolete.

(b) Competition, which creates the inevitability that some individuals lose "face", esteem and status.

(c) Job ambiguity (particularly when it is in conjunction with pressure).

(d) Lack of job feedback, volatility in the organizations' financial environment, job insecurity and high visigibility of one's performance (success as well as failures).

(e) Personal problems such as physical illness, problems at home, unrealistically high personal goals and estrangement from one's colleagues or one's peer group.

Stressors Intrinsic to Job

The nature of the job will determine the level of stress it carry with it. A railway engine dreiver's job is more stressful as it generally does not have control over the time and attached with it is a higher degree of responsibility due to volume of passenger travelling in the train. The driver does not have control over the safety of passengers hence it is more stressful. High stress jobs are those where the employees have little if any control over the operations, work under time constraints and have major tasks for human beings and other resources. You will find high stress jobs like defence services, police, foreman, mangers, inspector, etc. On the contrary there are low stress jobs like teachers, craft worker, farm labour. Studies carried out by Karasek9 has indicated higher threat of coronary diseases to people who work under high stress jobs. He identified two job factors that affect the level of such risk. These factors are firstly "degree of psychological demand" and the "level of decision control" over the work. According to this study jobs are categorized in the following manner:

(a) Low psychological demand/ Low decision control. Eg. Watchman, truck driver.

(b) Low psychological demand/ High decision control. Eg. Mechanic, sales clerk.

(c) High psychological demand/ High decision control. Eg. Sales manger, bank officer.

(d) High psychological demand/ Low decision control. Eg. waitress, telephone operator,

cook etc.

Role Ambiguity

Role of each individual must be plainly defined. According to Kahn* role is a set of activities associated with certain position in the business or in the society. If these work activities are ill defined, then the person will not perform his duties as others expect him to do so.

When there is ambiguity about role expectation. Then people in the organization experience specific amount of stress. Generally, role of one is associated with the appointment he holds and duties of various appointments are well laid down and time tested. If one is holding station masters job, his duties are clear and there's a little scope for ambiguity. This is merely possible in bureaucratic or traditional organizations. Role ambiguity is more pronounced with the organizations which can be fluid in nature and at the mercy of change with environment factors. Role ambiguity is also noticed in managerial cadre where job specifications and roles are not clearly defined as a result of general nature of the job. Principle of unity of command is not followed strictly and therefore there's always a conflict about reporting channels. French and Caplan10 in their studies figured role ambiguity causes.

STRESS MANAGEMENT

(1) Psychological strain and dissatisfaction.

(2) Leads to under utilization of recruiting, and

(3) Contributes to feeling of futility on how to handle the organizational environment

Role Conflict

Role conflict occurs when people have a number of expectation from another person that struggles to meet their demands put on him. A person may well not manage to handling two or more pressures at any one time. Employees may be demanding rise in salary, which a manger feels as genuine but he cannot recommend to the management due to latter's pressure. Role conflict occurs when contradictory demands are simultaneously located upon an employee. Role conflict also occur when an individual must play several role simultaneously. A manager cannot permit his wife (a worker) to go back home before time or he may not accept lower quality of work on one hand, but may neglect quantity on the other. There is certainly stress due to inter - role conflict. Robert Kahn and his colleagues at University of Michigan figured contradictory role expectations give rise to opposing role pressures (role conflict) which generally have the following effects on the emotional experience of the focal person : Intensified internal conflicts, increased tension associated with various aspect of the work, reduced satisfaction with the job and its various components, and decreased confidence in superiors and in the organization as a whole. Any risk of strain experienced by those in conflict situations lead to various coping responses as social and psychological withdrawal among them. "Finally the existence of conflict in one's role tends to undermine his relations along with his role senders to create weaker bonds of trust, respect and attraction. It is quite clear that role conflicts are costly for the person in emotional and interpersonal terms. They may be costly to the business, which will depend on effective coordination and collaboration, within and among its parts".

BURNOUT

Burnout is a type of existential crisis in which work is no more a meaningful function. Workers who experience burnout may no longer view their job as meaningful. They feel work as tedious, redundant, and insignificant. They experience total fatigue which might show itself in the form of boredom, depression and a robust sense of alienation. Work related behaviour of executives indicate very little concern for quality, creativity, enthusiasm and contribution to organizational goals.

Morely and Katherine (1982) in their work on the topic have recognized the pattern of behaviour burned out executives. They concluded that predictable behaviour is really as under:

(a) Tendency to balance others in the business for his or her burnout.

(b) To complain bitterly about aspects of work which before were not areas of concern.

(c) To miss work because of non-specific and increasingly prevalent illness.

(d) To daydream and sleep on the job.

(e) For being last to come and the first ever to leave.

(f) To bicker with co-workers or appear unco-operative also to become increasingly isolated from others.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Causes of Burnout

1. Work Estimation: Overwork is generally regarded as a major cause for burnout. But it not so. Burnout happen in a chaotic, unstable environment. It often happens when there is a confusion about duties and future managerial directions. Burnout takes place when there exists management by crisis. Low work estimation could also cause burnout. When executives feel that there is absolutely no challenge and innovativeness in the task, burnout happen.

2. Job Mismatch: It has been observed that executives choose and accept jobs which has higher extrinsic reward like high salaries and power. These hygiene factors generally neglect to motivate executives for a longer time. Decision to choose extrinsic reward over intrinsic rewards results unhappiness. Job mismatch may be viewed in personal value and organizational value system and autonomy provided by organization in work environment. Lack of gratification from the task generally brings about burnout.

Organizational Productivity

When executive are not able to meet organizational objective due to external environmental factors like shortage of raw material, government rules, market demand etc. , they experience a burnout. They feel a feeling of helplessness. Burnout can also be noticed where there is a strict bureaucratic way of doing things and incredibly little scope for exploitation of personal skills, innovation and creativity.

Personal Problems

Personal problems like unhappy married life, financial instability, children education, job security could cause stress leading to burnout. Persons with a predisposition to burnout may be badly influenced by problems unrelated to work.

Prevention of Burnout

As seen in the preceding reading, burnout emanate from organizational policy, structure, practices, nature of the work and personal characteristics of the average person. Possibility of burnout increases when there is a mismatch between individual and job fit. Preventive measures include diagnosis, prevention and treatment.

Diagnosis

It is the duty of most individuals to ensure that his subordinate is not put through burnout. This is identified from the early warning by observing clinical signs that are the following:

(a) Feeling of lethargy.

(b) Lack of productivity.

(c) Insufficient interest in today's job and feeling that change of job and place may change the present situation without even considering upward mobility.

(d) Feeling of loneliness, forced isolation and acute discomfort.

(e) Feeling of direction less.

(f) Traumatic personal problems like death in family or major accident.

STRESS MANAGEMENT

Prevention

Morley and Katherine have suggested the following preventive and treatment strategies:

(a) Seeking a fit between characteristics of the average person, complexity of the work and kind of organizational structure.

(b) Developing programmes which help individuals deal with the causes of stress that lead to burnout.

(c) Teaching and supporting self - diagnosis and individual adaptation approaches for addressing burnout symptoms.

Treatment

(a) Evaluate and understand the cause of burnout.

(b) Determine change both personal and organizational to come back on track work - related functioning.

(c) Develop sensitivity to the signs of burnout to handle probability of the same in future.

(d) Develop skills to deal with feelings and thoughts to avoid burnout to fellow employees.

Role Overload / Under Load

It has been observed that organizations are resorting to market employees to take voluntary retirement (VRS). In addition employees are being retrenched to lessen the production cost to be able to be competitive in the market. This has led to excessive work-load to the employees. In this example they believe that they don't have sufficient time or ability to meet such requirements. When targets have to be met, employees have to work over time.

At times they have even to handle several job to cater for absent workers. Role overload occurs when there exists too much work, inadequate time or insufficient skills. Role underload can be an opposite phenomenon to role overload. It occurs when person's skill and ability is under utilized, there is a insufficient job variety or the contents of the job is so small that the individual feels that his potentials are not been fully utilized. Workers who suffer from work underload experience insufficient interest in the job and causes excessive absenteeism. It in the end ends up with low self-esteem and lack of job satisfaction.

Responsibility

Responsibility is one factor for work stress. Individuals who are in finance department have to complete accounts of the organization before a scheduled date. This increases work load and stress merely since it must be computed before a specific time. It causes a sense of burden upon a person. Efficiency of an manager is greatly afflicted by the efficiency and quality of work produced by subordinates. If anything goes wrong, it is a leader who's in charge of it. This aspect causes stress after a manger. French and Caplin state. When there is any truth to the adage that "man's greatest enemy is himself", it can be found in these data - it's the responsibility which organizational members have for other organizational members, as opposed to the responsibility for impersonal areas of the business, which constitutes a lot more significant organizational stress".

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

MANAGEMENT OF STRESS

Individual Level Strategies

Minimum degree of stress is required to stimulate individuals to raised productivity. Excessive stress is bad for both individual and organization. It really is a typical practice to evolve various stress reduction strategies in the organizations. Individuals must take steps to reduce stress to a acceptable level. It really is clarified that each individual has different capacity to cope with individual stress. Some of the individual stress reduction strategies are as under:

1. Define objective for Self: Establishing of objective for self is a continuous process right from the childhood where parents generally decide regarding the blast of learning, institutes and the like. Once you join an organization, it is important to review organizational structure, job involved and the prospects of growth. Every person must set for himself the thing vis - vis the ability and skill one possesses. It is generally observed that individuals set high objective for themselves to be achieved in a nutshell span of time. They inhibit inbuilt concern with failing. Setting up of high standard without analyzing resources available leads to stressful situation. People must modify their goals based after various resources available, 'time' being the main resource.

2. Plan your life: Work stress comes with an effect on personal life at home and vice - versa. It is therefore important to plan various aspects of life as is possible. This will include increasing professional competence through acquiring additional qualification and skill, sound financial planning, home, children education and so forth. Contingency plan must be evolved in case there is uncertainty. If this is done, one is physically and mentally prepared for events to come. Investment in insurance for children education could make you free from 'stress' if it was planned well in advance.

3. Social Support: A man is now isolated as an island in vast ocean due to breaking of joint family system, requirement of moving out of home for service purposes and thereby losing physical contacts with kith and kin. It is important to keep close rapport with relatives. At closer to workplace develop friendship with fellow workers who can help in times of crisis, stress and strain. Social support can be easily built by sticking with social functions, norms and following religious activities at the job place. This will permit individuals to regain sulking self confidence and build self-esteem. Folks have resorted to GOD in later years. Old age homes, citizens committees etc. are sings of existence of stress and evolving of stress resolution strategies. The practice of confession to a priest in the Catholic religion is only ways to eliminate stress caused by some action.

4. Physical Fitness: Healthy body and mind are stress resistance. It has been conclusively proved that individuals who exercise therefore strengthen their endurance and cardiovascular system, are significantly less likely to have problems with certain types of stress related illness13. Regular physical exercises like walking, jogging, light gymnastics exercises keep person fit and develop an ability to sustain greater degree of stress. Soldiers are more stress resistants as they keep themselves STRESS MANAGEMENT toned. They develop an ability and mind to withstand worst of the situations. Appropriate daily diet help individual to keep health.

5. Biofeedback: Biofeedback is the human ability to bring a few of the bodily functions under voluntary control. It's the methodology designed to remove undesirable body responses through psychological transformation. Usage of superior electronics devices are made to measure the degree of stress in an individual. With subsequent relaxasation or yogic exercises the average person is cut back to normal standard situation by detatching stress. The relaxation exercises are helpful to control heart attacks, acidity, brain haemorrhage, blood circulation pressure and muscle tension etc. Changes in these deceases are caused due to higher level of stress which an individual is not habitual to experience. Biofeedback takes care to regulate the consequences of stress on voluntary basis by proper exercises.

6. Yoga: Yoga is a methodology to integrate body and mind and achieve a required level of harmony with the God. That is achieved by physical exercises called Asanas which stimulates various systems in the torso like the respiratory system, nervous system, blood circulation system etc. This brings a impressive change into individuals physical capacity and mental ability to sustain through various stress and strain situations. Yoga is also considered as an activity of attainment of ultimate peace. But for a typical man, it is merely the physical exercises which are targeted at healthy body and mind to counter stress.

7. Meditation: Indian history is replete of examples of various saints having achieved salvation by meditation. Lord Gautam Budha had achieved 'nirwana' by meditation. Meditation involves sitting at quite place, closing eyes and focusing on some symbol with uttering of simple world like 'OM'. It is targeted at total concentration thus forgetting routine situations. This technique also attracts syncranised breathing exercises aim being to block extraneous thoughts from one's mind. Meditation is blend of body, concentration of mind on a specific symbol, utterance of words, regulating of breathing thereby reaching a total concentration of mind and body to achieve a brilliant natural personal power. If this is achieved an individual can comfortably handle stressful situation with ease. Meditation brings peace to the mind, develops tolerance power, increases personality and in the end brings about sainthood.

8. Time Management: Time management is one of the methods of reducing stress. Life is becoming very fast. Executives down to a standard worker is pressed for time. Everybody must play various roles in life. All the roles have to be performed in a given span of time. It is therefore essential to plan time adequately. Time management can be for various events in real life education, marriage etc. Daily level, it relates to planning daily routine events. Every individual must maintain a diary in which work schedule and progress should be reflected when more than one job must be done at a particular time, priority should be accorded to comparatively important job. It's important to maintain to the schedule of events as planned and ensure the same from the subordinates. This eases strain on the work schedule and facilitates managing private/ personal work. It instills in an individual a habit of punctuality and a larger sense of responsibility and commitment to the organization.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

9. Live a simple Life: It is advisable that every person should live a straightforward life clear of cumbrances. Too much of issues being handled at any one time saps individuals energy. One should not complicate issues rather provide simple, straight forward solutions. Usually do not ask your subordinates to hold back for just about any decision or action on your part. Cases must be disposed off fast without lack of time. In personal life too simplicity of behaviour help individual resolve issues with time. This reduces tension and facilitates time management.

Organizational Level Strategies

Organization play a decisive role in ensuring peaceful environment free of stress. Basically stress relates to two types of events. First the organizational structure and policy and second relating to personal development and growth that the work can provide. Following aspects must be carefully examined and evaluated for its effectiveness and implementation.

(a) Organizational goals must maintain realms of achievement. Too much high goals not only position the employees under undue stress but also creates unhealthy work place.

(b) Organizational polices should be evidently defined with particular mention of training and development, promotion, leave, wages and salary administration, discipline, incentives, etc.

(c) Authority and responsibility must be obviously defined by setting up reporting channels. Principle of unity of command should be adhared to.

(d) Organizational structure, redesigning of jobs and improved communication reduces stress.

(e) Corporate policies, physical work environment should be suitable for higher productivity.

(f) An updated systems and processes increases efficiency.

(g) Management must create an healthy working environment.

(h) Career arrange for mangers must be developed and implemented in letter and spirit. Nothing discourages employees as bad developmental programmes.

(i) Employees must be empowered. They must be given suitable time to time counselling by means of advice, reassurance, good communication, release of emotional tension and clarified thinking. Re-orientation is important to keep employees free from stress for increased productivity.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)