Jungs Theory Concerning Personality Types Mindset Essay

Describe and evaluate Jung's theory relating to personality types and their romance to different varieties of psychological disruption.

In order to understand Jung's theory involving personality types and their marriage to different forms of psychological disturbance it might be important firstly to understand a little about Jung himself, his major affects and his contributions. This provides the framework to Jung's personality (typology) model which we will discuss in greater detail shortly.

Carl Gustav Jung was born in Switzerland on the 26th July 1875. Jung researched drugs from 1894 to 1900 and towards the finish of his studies, he customized in psychiatric medicine. In the long run, though Jung's curiosity about psychology was very much linked to his review of the humanities. Jung emphasized the value of understanding the worlds of idea, anthropology, mythology, astrology, artwork, religion, and so forth.

In his letter to the Psychoanalytic Review Jung (1913) published,

"We need not only the work of medical psychologists, but that also of philologists, historians, folklore students, ethnologists, philosophers, theologians, pedagogues and biologists" (p 117 - 118)

Jung was also very proficient in mystical practices such as Alchemy and the Kabala and the symbolism within these practices. He was also interested in Buddhism and Hinduism. Furthermore Jung's work on the personality model (or typology model) was quite definitely influenced by the Four Greek Temperaments model and its own various interpretations. The Four Temperaments are actually echoed in Jung's Four Functions. - Phlegmatic, Choleric, Melancholic and Sanguine.

Although Jung was very much influenced by the humanities it is effective to notice that Jung approached personality types from a perspective of specialized medical psychoanalysis. Understanding the nature and course of psychic energy within people would be an important element of psychoanalysis.

Therefore in order to understand Jung's personality model it is important to realise that it is predicated on psychic energy and how we have a preference to use the energy in relation to Self applied and the exterior world. Jung found the psyche and personality all together. Individuation is a synthesis of all psyche and personality - working towards becoming Self applied.

It is also important to recognize the many pioneering personality and mental health concepts originally suggested by Jung including The Collective Unconscious, The Archetype, The Organic, Synchronicity as well as Individuation. We were holding major contributions and all helped Jung shape his thinking about personality types. The Archetypes - Persona, Anima/Animus, the Shadow and the Self - are all aspects of someone's psyche and personality.

Storr (1973) explains the way the Persona for example can affect a person's outward personality,

"The Persona is the word derived from the Latin for the mask assumed by stars, and is used by Jung to designate the role played by an individual in accordance with the expectations of society as opposed to what the individual is the truth is. A man may become identified with his role, to the detriment of his personality" (p 21)

Jung describes the procedure of individuation with regards to the cover up in his Collected Works (1966)

"During evaluation this face mask is stripped off and the average person sometimes appears to be, at bottom level, collective" [p 280 - 283]

Another Archetype is the Shadow or the dark area of someone's personality, which Jung found as having creative choices and not actually negative. The main Archetype - the Self applied - is the integration of most.

Another important aspect to Jung's work is the total amount between the mindful and the unconscious brain. Relating to Jung a person uses both his conscious and unconscious head and this makes up his/her mental health make-up.

SELF BALANCING

UNCONSCIOUS

CONSCIOUS

Jung asserted that the mindful and unconscious are self balancing. If the conscious part becomes too dominating, then your unconscious area will get started to surface to rectify the balance. This can express itself externally, for example a physical or visible illness may appear or internally, for example through dreams or internalised images.

To become Self (overall) an integration of the conscious and unconscious needs to happen. If it doesn't take place this may lead to mental health issues, personality disruptions or unhelpful personality features. If the person does not carry on towards self-knowledge and individuation, neurotic symptoms may happen. Jung performed the view that neurotic conditions were

evidence of inability to integrate and harmonise areas of the personality, and a loss of life so this means. However, he did not view neurosis as negative, providing the individual responds to the self-regulating communication from the psyche.

In order to reach individuation, the individual must be open to aspects of themselves that goes beyond their own ego. The basic assumption is the fact appropriate and healthy communication between your conscious and unconscious is essential for wholeness. Regarding to Jung, psychotherapy aids the individual to re-establish a healthy marriage with the unconscious mind and to combine and harmonise areas of the personality and work towards integration.

The above pays to to understand as it is essential to Jung's work. It provides the context to Jung's personality (typology) model which we will now discuss in more detail.

The personality model developed by Jung can be utilized for people that have a mental disorder and also for those who desire to enhance their personal development and well-being. It could not only improve neurosis or psychosis and other mental health disorders but can also help those who screen a distorted way of living - for example an anti-social personality or a passive-aggressive.

An interpretive platform allows us to more easily identify personality characteristics and features. By understanding and interpreting what's taking place, a psychotherapist is more likely to be able to suggest what improvements need to take place. Jung accordingly developed his concept of personality types in order to improve this understanding

Jung asserted that we now have two main behaviour types and these both (alongside many others discussed later) form the substance of Jung's personality types model.

These two types are Introverted and Extraverted and are seen as opposites. Jung presumed in the integration of opposites (for example, considering and being masculine and feminine) and found this as quite crucial.

PSYCHIC ENERGY

EXTRAVERTED

INTROVERTED

In Psychological Types (Jung 1921 p 514 ) Jung describes the introverted and extraverted general types. Matching to Jung, the attitude of the introvert towards an subject is abstracting. The extravert on the other side, holds a more positive regards to the thing.

Extraverted

Introverted

In an extravert the psychic energy is aimed from the person

Focus is outward and objective

In an introvert the person's psychic energy is directed internally

Focus is inward and subjective

Extraverts and introverts will dsicover things in very different ways which can cause misunderstanding and misunderstandings. Two people considering the same situation will dsicover quite different things.

Jung presumed that extroversion and introversion are both within each individual. However, the first is conscious and dominant, as the other is unconscious and subordinate. For example, if the ego is mainly extroverted, the personal unconscious will be introverted.

Jung believed a subordinate 'attitude' compensates for any weakness of the other. For instance, the dreams of an introverted person will be extroverted, whereas those of an extrovert are more likely to come with an introverted quality. Jung also presumed that a person's behavior at confirmed time wasn't necessarily an indication of that person's dominating personality type.

Sharp (1987) details out

"It's important to realize a person's activities aren't always a reliable indication of the attitude type. The life of the get together may indeed be an extravert, but not necessarily. Similarly, long periods of solitude do not automatically imply that one is an introvert in other words, while a specific activity maybe associated with introversion or extraversion, this does not so easily translate into the type one is" [p 31]

Jung asserted that extraversion and introversion will be self-balancing. Somebody who is dominantly consciously extraverted for example, will find that their introverted area will be disclosed unconsciously.

In his Collected Works, Jung (1966) areas,

". the unconscious has a particular significance in cases like this as a corrective to the one-sidedness of the conscious mind" (Vol 7, p 256 - 262)

Jung associated this compensatory impact to the repression of a person's natural tendencies which could result in profound unhappiness or despair or even disorder or disease.

Also, in his Collected Works, Jung (1966) observed

"that anyone who would like do it yourself realisation must make conscious and assimilate the articles of his personal unconsciousness [ Vol 7 p 269 - 273 ]

There is also some research to suggest that there maybe a relationship between personality types and internal disorders. For instance, introverts maybe more willing to catatonic type schizophrenia and extroverts towards bipolar disorder.

So we can easily see that the two behaviour of extraversion and introversion form the foundation to Jung's personality model. Jung built on both attitudes of

extraversion and introversion and developed the 'Four practical types' framework.

Jung's Four Functions are

Thinking

Feeling

Sensation

Intuition

They are defined here

Thinking

what something is

Focus on meaning and understanding

Is analytical and objective

They are opposites.

People like one or the other.

They are reasoning, logical and judging functions

They are logical as they examine, reason and decide.

Feeling

whether it's good or not

Focus on value and weight

Is personal and subjective

Sensation

something exists

Focus on sensual perceptions

Is natural and useful.

They are opposites

People prefer one or the other

They are perceiving and irrational functions

They are irrational as they do not assess, reason or decide.

Intuition

where it's from and where it's going

Explores choices and atmosphere

Is imaginative and speculative.

Jung assemble the four practical types as two pairs of opposites. They are very often shown as four details as above.

thinking

intuition

or

sensation

feeling

Jung believed that each folks has an all natural orientation towards one of the functions and that becomes our prominent type. He used the term 'most differentiated' so this means dominant. The prominent type plays the principal role in a person's make- up.

He presumed that the contrary function (or substandard function) would be compensated within the unconscious part of a person's mind. Within the diagram above if thinking is superior than feeling would be repressed. Either one of the other two could be next dominant and would be utilized as an auxiliary function to support the superior function. The auxiliary functions are not polarised just as as the superior and second-rate functions are.

On another pages are a few examples

Thinking is the superior function

Thinking

< this would be the conscious 'superior' or dominant function

intuition

< one of the would be the auxiliary function >

sensation

Feeling

Feeling is the superior function

Feeling

< this would be the mindful 'superior' or prominent function

intuition

< one of the would be the auxiliary function >

sensation

Thinking

Intuition is the superior function

intuition

< this will be the conscious 'superior' or prominent function

thinking

< one of the will be the auxiliary function >

feeling

sensation

Sensation is the superior function

sensation

< this would be the mindful 'superior' or dominant function

thinking

< one of the will be the auxiliary function >

feeling

intuition

< this will be the unconscious 'substandard' function

Jung added introversion and extraversion to the and brought it entirely as the eight major 'Psychological Types' [see table below]

The Eight Psychological Types

Psychological Type

Characteristics

Extraverted Thinking

Organiser, analyses, ideas, implements,

Introverted Thinking

Discovering, theoretical, seeks self-knowledge

Extraverted Feeling

seeks personal success, sociable, sentimental,

Introverted Feeling

seeks inner depth, self-contained inaccessible, enigmatic,

Extraverted Sensation

pleasure-seeking, hard-headed, practical,

Introverted Sensation

Expert, strong, obsessive, detached, distant

Extraverted Intuition

seeks change, ambitious, innovative,

Introverted Intuition

Aloof, visionary, stand offish, idealistic, mystical,

You will notice that the eight subconscious types at this stage do not include the 'auxiliary' functions.

Haber (1980 p 113 -121) in his analysis, 'Different Strokes for Different Individuals: Jung's Typology and Structured Experiences' examined and likened the evaluations of 175 students differentiated by Carl Jung's psycho-typology when they were involved in the session of nonverbal communication activities or a program of fantasy experience. The significant findings were the following: intuitive types preferred both experiences more than the thinking types; extraverts preferred both encounters more than the introverts; and the sensation types preferred the nonverbal communication experiences more than the dream experiences. Thus, it seems evident that a few of the Jungian subconscious types choose different structured activities.

It must be produced clear that Jung wasn't attempting to 'pigeon-hole' people into a personality type.

Jung in Chapter 10 of his publication Psychological Types (1921) clarifies

". . . In this descriptions I have no desire to give my visitors the impression that such clean types occur in any way frequently in real practice. These are, as it were, only Galtonesque family-portraits, which summarize in a cumulative image the common and therefore typical individuals. . " (p 514)

Although Jung's personality model doesn't try to pigeon gap people it can benefit clients become more aware of their personality and behaviour patterns.

We can see how it can be useful when contemplating the following circumstance studies

Paul - Extroverted Intuitive

Paul thought stifled by his present life and wished to make changes. He was dissatisfied in his work and wished to move on. He had altered his job 5 times within the last 2 years. Whenever a new work possibility arose he felt

excited and determined, but when he altered job within a short while this excitement vanished and he became unmotivated and bored again. He was also experiencing head pain and generally sensing run-down and exhausted.

Paul was an extroverted intuitive type so he was always on the lookout for new opportunities and change. The extraverted intuition type tends to tire of existing situations, quickly becoming bored to death and cannot adhere to something for a reasonable length of time. Because introverted discomfort is the inferior function little attention is put on physical needs, so Paul was neglecting his body and his health. If Paul continuing like this eventually this may lead to more serious physical disease.

Emma - Extraverted Thinker.

Emma experienced a active life. She possessed previously supervised her own business. She instigated the idea behind the business and arrange it herself. She was really good at organising and planning, including organising other people. She was quite definitely the extraverted thinker and, if extraverted thinking is the principal function, then introverted feeling would be the inferior function. Regrettably her business had been battling and she was required to sell up. Also, she had broken up with her partner and was living on her own. She didn't like living on her behalf own and was frightened of the chance of continuing to take action. She put in most evenings on her own, doing hardly any except endeavoring to avoid people in her life who appeared to value her. She got little if any fascination with them. She would occasionally listen to their problems but without the feeling and would come across to them as cold, even defensive and hostile. She was

actually quite thinking about the facts with their problems but exhibited no indication of caring or compassion. Her sense function acquired become repressed. She was more enthusiastic about the facts than in how she came across to others which made her look unfriendly. To pay, the unconscious thoughts possessed become highly oversensitive and she was starting to become competitive and mistrustful of others. If Emma remained unacquainted with this, it might have lead to a overlook of both her own feelings and the thoughts of other people who cared about her.

Jane - Introverted Thinking

Jane was unable to maintain a healthy romance and couldn't realize why. She had short term relationships that have been based more on her behalf desperate dependence on company. To meet this need she latched to inappropriate associates who only had short term passions in mind. Jane's most important function was introverted considering with extraverted sense as an inferior function. Because Jane was so destined up with her inner thoughts and emotions she did not recognise certain requirements of a romance and did not learn how to express thoughts. When feelings do surface she explained them as overpowering. Her poor choice in human relationships and her allowing partners to work with her because of their short term needs, would seem to be to be as a result of a substandard extraverted sense. If Jane remained unaware of this she could continue with her a style of unhealthy connections.

Jung's work inspired psychometrics and personality testing. They for example relate with Myers Briggs' equivalent of these types. Now auxiliary functions have been put into each of the eight main types to produce sixteen personality types.

These are trusted today.

Extraverted Thinking Intuition

Extraverted Thinking Sensation

Extraverted Sensing Intuition

Extraverted Being Sensation

Extraverted Sensation Feeling

Extraverted Feeling Thinking

Extraverted Intuition Feeling

Extraverted Intuition Thinking

Introverted Thinking Sensation

Introverted Thinking Intuition

Introverted Sense Intuition

Introverted Being Sensation

Introverted Discomfort Feeling

Introverted Discomfort Thinking

Introverted Intuition Feeling

Introverted Intuition Thinking

Other psychometric models have been affected by Jung's personality types model.

British psychologist Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916-97) like Jung was quite definitely influenced by Galen's Four Temperaments. Eysenck's principles explore and analyse personality related to emotional stability. Eysenck's model was of-course predicated on Jung's Psychological Types.

Katherine Benziger's model is relatively recent. Benziger is strange because she emphasises 'wellness' and is designed to help visitors to avoid denying their true type. Benziger considers the four quadrants of the brain and divides these into - eyesight and creativeness; process and workout; logic and results; intuition and empathy. Benziger drew great creativity from Carl Jung. She relates the four quadrants to Jung's Four Functions.

The Myers Briggs and Keirsey models also make use of Jung's main 'four useful types' - Thinking, Sensing, Sensing, Intuition - as guide points.

The proven fact that Carl Jung's personality typology model is constantly on the influence many of the leading psychometrics systems in use today including those produced by Myers Briggs, Eysenck and Benziger is testimony to Jung's work. Jung provided us with the original framework while others have built upon this since.

While Jung's theories have affected commercially centered personality screening we mustn't forget that Jung's original purpose was to improve his own understanding of mental disease and ultimately other's understanding. Jung consequently developed his idea of personality types to be able to boost this understanding.

Jung's personality model provided an interpretive framework, to permit us to far more easily identify features and characteristics in a person's personality. As explained previous the model produced by Jung can be employed for people that have a mental disorder and also for individuals who desire to enhance and promote their own development and well-being.

Jung presumed people possessed potential to develop and improve which was central to his work.

Carl Jung's key ideas associated with personality has been of benefit to us all.

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