Erik Erikson suggests that development is a life-long ongoing process in which gains and losses in development happen throughout the life cycle. This issues the concept of "critical times" in Freud's theory.
Development occurs in the biological, cognitive, and social domains. The biological site includes the physical changes a person experience throughout the span of their life. This would include growth and development in the body. A good example of the natural aspect is hormone changes during puberty. Puberty is the point in time where the development of sexual characteristics begins, and can allow these humans to become sexually active and be able to produce gametes for duplication. The issues an adolescence might face going right through puberty is the necessity to adjust to changes occurring to the physical body, psychological changes such as sense self-conscious about their changing body, and mental changes such as producing the capacity for abstract thought and problem-solving.
Development is multidirectional:
Some areas of development may be increasing while others are declining or remains unchanged. For example, during past due adulthood, older individuals might become wiser with get older nonetheless they perform more improperly than younger men and women on tasks that want speed in handling information.
Development is clear plastic:
Development can be altered by life circumstances to some extent. Matching to Paul Baltes, humans have the capability of plasticity or positive change to environmental complications throughout life. For example, an individual who was raised in a shattered home environment with an abusive dad risk turning out fine and do well in adulthood as the issues get healed along the lifespan.
Development is dependent on record and framework:
Development is influenced by historical conditions. The historical time period where we grow up affects our development. For instance, children in early, middle or overdue childhood who grew up amidst a war may experience a absence in moral development in comparison with those who grew up in a safe and steady environment. The children may expand up having improved performing in the cognitive, behavioral, public and emotional facet of their development.
Development is multidisciplinary:
Development is analyzed by lots of disciplines, including mindset, sociology, anthropology, neuroscience, and drugs. For instance in drugs, one area of biological research which includes significant importance for development is looking at slowing down the aging process. Their focus is at anti-aging foods and drugs which can change the biological effects of aging plus some curently have shown significant results in canine studies.
Development is contextual:
Development occurs in the context of a person's biological makeup, physical environment, and social, historical, and cultural contexts
normative age-graded influences: natural and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group (e. g. , puberty, beginning school)
normative history-graded affects: natural and environmental affects that are associated with history; influences that are common to folks of a particular era. A good example is when the Singapore Administration applied the "Stop at two" child plan in 1969 to help control the immediate population progress. It had succeeded in significantly minimizing the population however, it got affected women greatly as they began to pursue opportunities before having children and this gave rise to numerous School graduated women failing to marry and carry offspring.
non-normative life happenings: uncommon occurrences which may have a major impact on a person's life; the occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these happenings are not suitable to most individuals (e. g. , death of a parent at a young age, obtaining a serious illness, earning a lottery)
Development Involves Progress, Maintenance, and Rules of Loss
The mastery of life often will involve issues and competition among three goals of real human development: growth, maintenance, and legislation. Growth starts early on in life from infancy through overdue adulthood. Maintenance and legislation follows after that around middle and past due adulthood as individual's capacities take centre stage. It is now time of keeping skills and minimizing deterioration.
Biological processes require changes within an individual's physical mother nature. Examples of natural processes includes, brain development, level and weight gains, changes in engine skills, hormonal and changes happening in puberty.
I will be concentrating on the biological procedure for puberty which occurs during adolescence. Puberty is a time of maturation of the reproductive system and hormonal changes occurring in the brain. During puberty, regarding males, a hormone called testosterone that are accountable for physical and behavioral masculinization, are released. Studies that use data on adolescents have generally found positive correlations between testosterone levels and extreme or anti interpersonal habit. Research on children has also found that higher testosterone levels in adolescents is associated with an increase of sexual activity (Halpern, et al. , 1998), age group at first sexual activity (Dunne et al, 1997), increased legal activity (Booth and Osgood, 1993), increased tobacco and alcohol use (Zitzmann and Nieschlag, 2001). In conditions of criminal action, Dabbs et al. (1995) conducted a remarkable study of 692 male jail inmates, finding testosterone related to type of crime and behavior in prison. Testosterone was highest among inmates convicted of child molestation, rape, homicide, and assault, and it was lowest among inmates convicted of burglary, theft, and medication offences.
In relation to Erikson's theory, in level 5 of his Psychosocial theory which identifies the crisis of "identity vs. identity confusion, this is a period of checking out new things till the adolescence establishes an individual personal information or fails doing so and ends up being confuse along with his role in life.
Cognitive processes entail changes in the individual's thought, intelligence, and words.
According to Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory, children actively construct their understanding of the entire world and go through 4 stages of cognitive development.
Sensorimotor Stage (Delivery - 2 years)
The first level of cognitive development is where newborns have the ability to construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experience (such as witnessing and hearing) with physical (motor) actions. For example, when an subject is devote the infant's hand and touches its hand, the fingers will close and understanding it. That is known as the palmar grasps reflex.
Preoperational Stage(2 - 7 years)
The second stage is where thought becomes more symbolic, egocentric, and intuitive alternatively than rational, however, it isn't operational. For example, the child can carry out symbolic play in which the children pretend that you subject is another. To estimate an example, girls at this time would perform role play of any "tea get together" where they assign delicate toys (symbols) jobs representing their mother and father. To show egocentrism of the kid at this time, Piaget conducted the three mountains activity in which children were asked to choose an image that demonstrated the three mountains off their viewpoint. The kids got little problems selecting the right picture. However, when asked to choose a picture from someone else's viewpoint, the children ended up selecting the same picture which exhibited their own point of view. This showed the children's inability to comprehend things from someone else's perspective.
Concrete Operational Stage (7 - 11 years)
This is the point where logic begins to develop and thus the child is able to reason logically about concrete occurrences and in a position to recognize the concept of conservation. For instance, children in the concrete operational stage is able to distinguish that the volume of water in a tall and narrow cup is the same as that in the short and wide cup when equal amounts are poured from the same box. However, the kid is unable to think hypothetically and have difficulty understanding abstract concepts.
Formal Operational Stage (11 years - adulthood)
In this stage, the child is able to reason in a more abstract, idealistic and reasonable manner. The child is able to think theoretically and hypothetically where the latter is important in content such as mathematics and research. The kid is less egocentric and thus can understand things in a new perspective. The child is also able to perform deductive reasoning where he is able to reason from generalities to details.
Socioemotional processes entail changes in the individual's interactions with other folks, changes in personality and feelings.
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory state governments that the principal motivation for human behavior is interpersonal and, displays a wish to affiliate with other people. Erikson views development as a lifelong process comprising a unique developmental activity that confronts specific with an emergency that requires resolution. Failure to take action would lead to possible negative benefits in adulthood.
Trust vs. Mistrust ( 0 - 1 year)
In this level, the infant is learning to trust others and the earth. Trust is set up when babies are given adequate and steady warmth, caring touch and physical care and attention. However, mistrust can form if inadequate, inconsistent care is distributed by wintry, indifferent and rejecting parents.
Autonomy vs. Pity & Doubt ( 1-3 years)
Autonomy is the freedom developed when small children are motivated by their parents for doing things independently (e. g. putting on shoes) versus the shame and uncertainty if the caregiver were to reprimand the kid for not having the ability to do the task promptly.
Initiative vs. Guilt ( 3- 5 years)
This can be an extension of the next stage where, initiative develops when the pre-school-going child is urged to explore and undertake new challenges versus the guilt that the child may experience if the parents criticize, prevent play or discourages requesting questions.
Industry vs. Inferiority ( 6 - 12 years)
This is in the context of primary college where in fact the child is supported or praised by educators for doing for productive activities versus the inferiority that might occur if the child's attempts are thought to be inadequate or messy.
Identity vs. Role misunderstanding ( 10 - 20 years)
The teenage years involve the necessity to establish a regular personal identification versus role dilemma where the adolescence is unsure of the course he is heading.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20s, 30s)
In this stage, intimacy develops when the average person begins establishing adult connections with friends, family and finally a enthusiast or a partner as he or she has the ability to care for others and showing experiences with them. However, isolation produces when the average person is regarded as as a loner and uncared for in his or her life. There's a relationship between this stage and the first level that was trust vs. mistrust. For instance, if an infant receives consistent sensitive loving health care from the caregivers, trust would be developed and therefore this would likely lead to the individual developing functional connections in his adult life and vice versa, if the infant developed mistrust in his first season of life credited to overlook from caregiver, there is a likelihood that the average person might wrap up being solitary in adulthood.
Generativity vs Stagnation (40s, 50s)
Generativity refers to the eye in guiding the next generation in terms of passing on worth and practices versus stagnation where the individual is merely concerned with their specific needs and so values are lost. Illustrations would be those who are single and/or married without children.
Integrity vs. despair ( 60s onwards)
Integrity occurs when the individual reflects after life and does not have any regrets as they have lived a abundant and in charge life versus despair where the individual views prior life occurrences with regrets and experience heartache and remorse.
Nature vs. Nurture
The nature-nurture controversy involves the debate about whether development is mainly influenced naturally or nurture. Character is a product of genetic or prenatal environment where children are delivered with certain conducts that are innate and are inborn biases. Nurture on the other palm, is the effects of certain experiences depending on individual's conception. Genetically, some individuals are delivered with defects in their genes that can affect their brain function and thoughts. Environmentally, severe cruel treatment of small children can create predispositions to becoming afflicted with no empathy and unusual actions. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believes in "noble savages" where children were naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and with an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth.
On the in contrast, the tabula rasa view by John Locke state governments that "Children are given birth to as "blank slates" and find characteristics through experience". This theory favors the "nurture" aspect of the debate in relation to one's personality, intelligence, social and emotional behavior.
I would like to spotlight on Schizophrenic serial killers. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder seen as a disintegration of thought techniques and of emotional responsiveness. It mostly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized talk and thinking, and it is associated with significant public or occupational dysfunction. The condition is mostly genetically inherited as those possessing a first-degree relative with the disease are at a higher risk of developing it. A good example of a notorious serial killer suffering from this disease is Ed Gein. He had not been only known for brutally eliminating two women but for exhuming their corpses from local graveyards and designed trophies and keepsakes off their bones and pores and skin. It was the horrific way of mutilation and the bizarre display of areas of the body in his home that increases questions as to the reasons someone would do such a cruel take action. Ed was raised in a strict and religious family with the existence of both parents in the household. A timid, effeminate boy, younger Gein became a concentrate on for bullies. To make matters worse, his mother punished him whenever he attempted to make friends. She also abused him and his brother. Despite his poor cultural development, he have quite well in institution, particularly in reading. Death in the family implemented as firstly, his father died and then his brother and accompanied by his mother. All these environmental factors accounts for the irregular behavioral habits elicited by Ed. Therefore in this example, we can't carefully determine that qualities of an serial killer are solely genetic (aspect) or simply environmental (nurture). However it is the interaction between these two traits that triggers development of such a behavior.
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
This issue focuses on the degree to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or unique stages (discontinuity). Developmentalists who emphasize nurture express development as a gradual, continuous process whereas those who emphasizes nature often describe development as a series of distinct stages.
For example, Freud's level model of psychosexual development, theorized that children systematically move through distinct phases of oral, anal, phallic, and latency stages before reaching adult adult sexuality in the genital stage. Proponents of level ideas of development also suggest that individuals go through critical periods, which are times of increased and favored sensitivity to particular aspects of development. For example, early years as a child (the first 5 years) is a critical period for terms acquisition. Thus, most individuals find it difficult or impossible to master a second terms during their adult years while young children lifted in bilingual homes normally learn second dialects easily during child years.
Theorist Erik Erikson extended after Freud's ideas by proposing a level theory of psychosocial development. Erikson's theory centered on conflicts that happen at different periods of development and, unlike Freud's theory, Erikson described development throughout the life expectancy. .
Stability vs. Change
This issue includes the amount to which we become old renditions of our own early experience or we become someone different from who we were at an early point in development. Many developmentalists who emphasize stableness in development dispute that stableness is the consequence of heredity and possibly early experience in life. Relating back to the above example of Ed Gein, he grew up socially introverted as he was discouraged acquiring buddies by his mother. In cases like this, he has accomplished stableness where his personal experience in early stages in years as a child became a catalyst for who he would grow to be in adulthood - a serial killer.
On the contrary, developmentalists who stress change take the more positive view that later experiences can produce change. I'd like to quote the exemplory case of Liz Murray better known to be "Homeless to Harvard". Murray was raised in the Bronx, New York to poor, drug addicted, and HIV-positive parents. She overcame hardships in her children and battled her way to have success and was accepted into Harvard University or college. Such, can be an exemplory case of change that can occur later on in life and shows that early encounters can shape us in different ways.
With regards to my friend's extreme view that Erikson's psychosocial perspective was sufficient in describing human life time development, I disagree to that statement as they are many other ideas to consider prior to making a conclusion concerning which was sufficient.
The basis of Erikson's psychosocial theory is inspired by Freud's psychosexual theory. Erikson's works on stretching Freud's theory as he discovered that Freud's ideas lacked vital social dimensions, and through his research and studies, it provided an integral for his 'biopsychosocial' perspective. Erikson's view of individual development was life-long through his 8 stages which arise throughout life whereas; Freud's view of development was through critical times which contain the 5 stages at adolescent.
Freud suggested that in the first level, if the medical child's desire for food were thwarted during any libidinal development level, the stress would persist into adulthood as a neurosis (practical mental disorder). If an baby is not fed enough (neglected) or given too much (over-protected) in the course of being nursed, it may result in the child growing up as an orally fixated adult. Oral-stage fixation may have 1 of 2 results: (i) the underfed or neglected child might turn into a psychologically reliant adult regularly seeking the dental stimulation refused in infancy, in so doing learning to be a manipulative person in satisfying his / her needs, somewhat than maturing to independence; (ii) the over-protected or over-fed child might withstand growing up and go back to being dependent upon others. Exemplory case of the ex - would be an individual who grows up to be an orally fixated adult who's an over-eater or a smoking addict to compensate for the inadequate oral excitement as a child. On the other hand, the latter is an individual who grows up to be reliant on others and demanding satisfaction through acting helpless, crying and being "needy". Therefore this highlights the importance of critical intervals in Freud's stage theory.
In Erikson's theory on the other side, it presented people with a crisis at each level where, depending about how one handle the challenge, it will result in positive or negative outcomes which can significantly impact one's personality and development.
The great things about this theory is the fact that it stresses on the eight character-forming problems stages, the concept also asserts that humans continue steadily to change and develop throughout their lives, and this personality is not solely formed during early childhood years. That is definitely a view that greatly assists encouraging oneself and others to start to see the future as a chance for positive change and development, rather than looking back with blame and regret. The better that people come through each turmoil, the better they'll tend to offer with what lies ahead, but this isn't to say that all is lost rather than to be recovered if one has had a poor experience during any particular crisis stage.
However with every theory, there are restrictions and this includes Erikson's theory. One of which is its ambiguous terms and concepts which can have several interpretations. Another reason is its insufficient precision as some terms cannot be easily measure empirically. The encounters in some phases may only apply to males and not females.
Piaget's cognitive development theory shown cognitive development through 4 phases concentrating on sensory experiences and physical activities (sensorimotor skills) which provided the value of examining developmental changes in children's thinking.
Vygotsky on the other hands, added a public and social aspect to his cognitive theory naming it the "Sociocultural cognitive theory". He provided emphasize on cultural connections and culture in shaping a child's cognitive process. He stresses that knowledge is not made from within, but rather constructed through interaction with people and cultural items (such as catalogs, personal computers).
Bandura's communal cognitive theory focuses on the value of environment to an individual's behavior. He emphasized the process of observational learning though imitation or modeling where people cognitively signify the habit of others and take up this tendencies themselves.
Information -handling theory stresses that humans are energetic information processors that bring forth the process of thinking and therefore learning good approaches for processing information is vital.
There are numerous factors that can affect human life time development and this includes the developmental functions in 3 key areas namely biological, cognitive and socioemotional. These three techniques work together in the development of an integrated person with a body and mind that are interdependent. The various theories address the several aspects of development and therefore we can't conclude that only the Erikson theory best describes human being development. Instead, implementing an eclectic methodology is more correct as it selects the best features from each theory. For example, Freud's theory best talks about the unconscious mind while Erikson's theory best details development being truly a life-long process and highlights the changes occurring in each level. Piaget's theory views cognitive development through sensorimotor and operational phases. Vygotsky added a interpersonal and cultural aspect to it and information-processing theory views humans as being capable to positively process information. Combining the three cognitive theories provided a alternative approach to cognitive development.
Behavioral and social cognitive theories such as Bandura's, provided environmental influences on development.
In conclusion, there is not one theory that can effectively explain human being development but instead implementing an eclectic methodology provided the best solution in holistically understanding human being development.
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