Literature review on the research of narcissism

This newspaper explores mainly on three published research articles which statement on results from research conducted on narcissism. Many research articles related to narcissism have been published. Some shared research articles use theory to explain about narcissism while some use viewpoint. This paper decides the research articles designed to use theory to do the reason in the study. The chosen posted research articles, however, range in their uses of theory in detailing narcissism. Two different theories that happen to be conflicting or disagreeing with the other person are determined from the study articles. This newspaper explains about the conflicting ideas abstracted from the study articles. The research articles are being discussed and the key points mentioned in the articles are summarized. This newspaper compares both conflicting ideas and advises the best theory which would be best relate with narcissism.

Overview of Narcissism

One of the personality disorders is the narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) which described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Within the last few generations, important specialized medical, theoretical, and empirical findings have stimulated tremendous conversation and controversy regarding the characteristics of pathological narcissism and this is and treatment of narcissistic personality disorder. The results of organized studies on narcissistic personality disorder and the characteristics of pathological narcissism have clarified lots of diagnostic issues and precipitated changes in the diagnostic conditions established, but also provoked problems to narcissistic personality disorder's diagnostic position and its validity as a long-term personality disorder. In mindset, narcissism is an excellent of the do it yourself that has significant implications for pondering, feeling, and behaving. People with narcissistic personality have highly inflated, unrealistically positive views of these self. Furthermore, narcissists will only give attention to what benefits them personally, with less respect for how their activities may gain or damage others.


Positive Illusions Theory

Humanism is a system of thought in which human being interest and value are key importance. Many humanistic psychology's ideas emphasize that individual durability aspiration, and the fulfillment in our probable. They present an optimistic image of human nature and describe people as an active, creative having to worry with growth. Generally, humanistic approach stresses the personal well worth of the average person, the centrality of individuals worth, and the creative, energetic nature of humans (Schultz & Schultz, 2009, p. 298). This approach is positive and targets noble individual capacity to beat hardship, pain and despair. The positive illusion is one of the humanistic approaches.

Positive illusions are that individuals often hold beliefs about themselves, the entire world, and the future which are more positive than simple fact can maintain (http:// en. wikipedia. org). Positive illusions will have self-esteem and self confidence, are less inclined to suffer from major depression, and harbour more compassion toward their connections spouse. Taylor and Brown suggested that positive illusions are also considered to foster higher determination and higher persistence or process, which finally lead to great success (as cited in Robins & Beer, 2001, p. 340). In effect, positive illusion may increase someone's self-efficacy. Gosling, John, Craik, and Robins state that those who overestimate their performance in a competitive group activity will be narcissistic, matching to ratings by the team of psychologists and self-report measures of narcissism (as cited in Robins & Beverage, 2001, p. 341).

Generally, positive illusions have been commonly known as one of the apparent effects of self-enhancement, a desire to maximize the positivity of your respective self-views and a function of improving self-esteem (http:// en. wikipedia. org). Specific variability in self-enhancing tendencies was related to narcissistic tendencies, ego participation in the duty, self-serving attributions for performance, and post job affective reactions.

Colvin, Block and Funder discovered that self-enhancing individuals were detailed by their peers in narcissistic conditions (e. g. , hostile, defensive, condescending), whereas individuals who did not have self-enhancing beliefs were referred to as cheerful and considerate (as cited in Robins & Beverage, 2001, p. 341). These studies provide clues to the internal factors underlying positive illusions. Matching to Farwell and Wohlwend, the narcissistic interpretation of self-enhancers shows that positive illusions may rest on a groundwork of fragile self-esteem and regarding to Sedikides and Strube, self-enhancing individuals may be more likely to chronically seek affirmation of the positive self-views (as cited in Robins & Ale, 2001, p. 349). Robins and Beverage (2001) also discovered that self-enhancers tended to fill their self-evaluations even in accordance with the way they thought their peers evaluated them. This finding implies that self-enhancers are generally aware that their peers do not share their rosy self-views, which seems unlike the assumption that self-evaluations are reflected appraisals of the views of others as mentioned by Mead (as cited in Robins & Ale, 2001, p. 349).

Positive illusions may reveal a more basic inclination to bolster self-esteem by denying information that threatens self-worth, which tendency may express itself on a variety of self-report measures. As a result, narcissists will derogate others and discount the validity of their perceptions. For example, corresponding to Raskin and Terry, narcissists claim that "sometimes my abilities are not recognized" on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (as cited in Robins & Beverage, 2001, p. 350). Thus, self-enhancers might narcissistically maintain their positive self-views by discounting the relevance of negative peer judgments. On the other word, individuals with distorted self-appraisals do not suppose that others see them in exactly the same way they see themselves.

Shelley Taylor and Jonathon Brown declare that "a couple of interrelated positive illusions-namely, unrealistically positive self-evaluations, exaggerated perceptions of control or mastery, and unrealistic optimism-can help a multitude of cognitive, affective, and interpersonal functions" (as cited in Nadelhoffer & Matveeva, 2009, p. 3). However, matching to Taylor and Dark brown, it appears that "beliefs in personal control are sometimes greater than can be justified" (as cited in Nadelhoffer & Matveeva, 2009, p. 4). For instance, Langer studies have shown that it is not uncommon for individuals to have the illusion of control even in situations that are driven completely by chance (as cited in Nadelhoffer & Matveeva, 2009, p. 4). It appears that when people expect a specific outcome to occur and it does occur, regarding to Taylor and Brown, they frequently "overestimate the degree to that they were instrumental in providing it about" even in situations where control is mainly or even entirely missing (as cited in Nadelhoffer & Matveeva, 2009, p. 4).

Self Legislation Theory

Self-regulation is one of theory that from the social-learning way. Social-learning theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a communal context. It considers that people learn from each other, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modelling (Ormrod, 1999). In Bandura's approach to personality, the home is not some psychic agent that determines or causes behaviour (Schultz & Schultz, 2009, p. 408). Somewhat, corresponding to Schultz and Schultz (2009), the self is a cognitive process and composition worried about thought and notion. Within the other term, cognition plays a role in learning, and over the last 30 years social learning theory has become ever more cognitive in its interpretation of human being learning. Earlier analyses of self-regulation of Baumeister, Heatherton and Tice emphasized three main substances of the self-regulation process (as cited in Baumeister & Vohs, 2007), but Baumeister and Vohs are now convinced that a fourth needs to be included. The first three ingredients are requirements, monitoring, and power (colloquially known as willpower). The fourth ingredient is determination. The fourth element is motivation to attain the goal or meet the standard, which in practice amounts to determination to modify the self. Even if the benchmarks are obvious, monitoring is completely effective, and the individuals resources are considerable, he or she may still fail to self-regulate due never to caring about achieving the goal.

As originally conceptualized the company model left out some important areas of narcissistic self-regulation. By using self-regulatory strategies, the narcissists spend a great deal of work to make themselves look and feel positive, special, successful and important. Regarding to Raskin and Novacek, sometimes these do it yourself regulation attempts are intrapsychic, such as fantasizing about electric power or blaming the problem as opposed to the self for failing (Campbell & Foster). At other times these work are social, such as when they use their interactions in the service of the home.

Meanwhile, the self applied regulatory tactics utilized by narcissists include initiatives to be recognized, look good, surpass others, and defend the personal against perceived dangers. Relating to Buss and Chiodo, attention seeking, directing the issues of discussions to themselves, showing off, speaking in a loud voice with exaggerated gestures are standard narcissistic strategies (as cited in Campbell & Foster). Alternatively, the introduction of narcissists' associations is also affected dramatically by do it yourself regulation. Their associations usually start quickly and are exciting and enjoyable, but become stressed as intimacy does not develop and narcissists' negative habits (e. g. , infidelity, manipulation, aggression) become evident. Furthermore, they have the ability to reduce the chances of negative feedback applies to feedback from both actual dating companions and potential going out with partners. According to Rhodewalt and Eddings, in both occasions, narcissists' effectively deal with negative reviews (as cited in Campbell & Foster). Given the above mentioned, it is not unexpected that the narcissistic personal could very well be most usefully conceptualized as a personal regulatory system: It really is an interactive group of traits, abilities, values, strategies, tendencies, and thoughts that mutually forecast and reinforce each other.

In method of narcissism, self-regulation has been generally related to narcissism. Generally, narcissism is approximately looking or being good about other folks and the narcissist acts and thinks with techniques that keep these home views viable. Regarding to Raskin, Novacek and Hogan, they identified narcissism as a strategy for handling self-esteem via grandiosity (as cited in Campbell & Foster). Narcissists' grandiose self-displays were theorized to operate a vehicle self-esteem levels. In the same way, Campbell's self-orientation model focused on narcissists' use of interpersonal associations, specifically via the mechanisms of associating with highly positive and admiring others for self-enhancement goals (as cited in Campbell & Foster). Corresponding to Morf and Rhodewalt, the most elaborated self-regulatory style of narcissism is the vibrant self-regulatory processing model (as cited in Campbell & Foster). This model is focuses on narcissist's efforts to regulate positive self-views. The model has four interacting components: self-knowledge, intrapersonal self-regulatory process, social behaviours, and social connections. Campbell and Foster find this model to be extremely great for taking into consideration the dynamics of the narcissistic self applied and we borrow from it when delivering our extended organization model. A final model that is relevant to Campbell and Foster's way is Paulhus's "minimalist model" of narcissism (as cited in Campbell & Foster). This model focuses on the basic composition of narcissistic personality which is high agency/egotism, low communion/morality to be important for narcissists interpersonal working. This model offers an extremely parsimonious profile of a good deal of the info on narcissism. Overall, the self-regulatory is related to the narcissism.

Differences Between Theories

Generally, the most significant contrast between the two theories that people found is that of the positive illusion theory comes from the humanistic strategy which is the very thought of human. The home rules theory is from the sociable learning approach which will focuses on the learning within a communal. Quite simply, the narcissism from the positive illusion theory is the narcissist often thinks about themselves more favorably than they can be in reality world. Whereas in the cultural learning theory, the narcissist is the person who always manages themselves to be able to protect their delight. As Taylor and Brown described, positive illusions is recognized as unrealistically positive self-evaluations and unrealistic optimism. The positive illusion is convinced these illusions are retained through biases in encoding, and will change briefly and then get back to their original state. Although this illusion is unrealistic and we must consider if this lack of realism offers a benefit in addition to the established benefits associated with the triad. However, in line with the Taylor and Dark brown (1988), in their review the unrealistic illusions that will cause the positive effects to the thinking about narcissist and consequently this can make the effect of self-enhancement to the narcissist.

The other contrast of these two ideas such as through the positive illusion perspective, the self-enhancement of the narcissists is merely suitable for short-term because of the unrealistic positive view. However, in the perspective of the self applied- regulation, the narcissists will control or control their behavior to increase their pleasure in the long term or for longer time.

In the other side, in the view in self-regulation, the narcissists control themselves to be able change to bring behaviour with some standard such as an ideal or goal however the important is dependant on their capacity. Whereas in the view of positive illusion, the narcissists will belief to them can do anything that has ended their ability.

In the positive illusion, the narcissists want to believe that they are experienced and worthy folks who are loved and reputed by those around them. This show that, they have a tendency to motivated themselves to be able to achieve their goal that will increase their self-esteem.


First Article

The first chosen article is Positive Illusions About the Personal abstracted from Journal of Personality and Friendly Mindset, Vol. 80, No. 2, (2010), p. 340-352 written by Richard W. Robins and Jennifer S. Beverage. The article contains two studies that analyzed parallel questions about the correlates and repercussions of positive illusions. The first analysis (Analysis 1) was conducted in a lab context, and the second study (Research 2) was conducted in a real-world, longitudinal context. Both studies centered on one form of positive illusion, self-enhancement bias (i. e. , unrealistically positive self-evaluations), and on several factors thought to play a central role in the self-evaluation process (narcissism, ego engagement, causal attributions, have an impact on).


Study 1 evaluated self-enhancement bias and its own romance in a group-decision-making activity. In this, participants worked toward a solution about how better to use their available resources to survive after crash getting on the moon. Following the task, participants evaluated their own performance in the task (self-evaluations) and the performance of one another group member (peer evaluations). Individuals also approximated how their performance was evaluated by the other group participants (recognized peer assessments). Using these three packages of performance scores (i. e. , self applied, peer, identified peer), the study reviewed several questions about how precisely people protect their self-worth and bolster their self-esteem. In Review 1, a complete of 360 individuals (57% women) participated in the analysis. Members interacted in sets of five in a decision-making job entitled "Lost on the Moon. " Relating to Robins and Beverage (2001), the instructions for the task were as implemented

You are an associate of a space crew originally scheduled to rendezvous with a mom ship on the lighted surface of the moon. Because of mechanical complications, however, your dispatch was required to land at an area 200 mls from the rendezvous point. The rough getting has ruined your ship and damaged much of the equipment aboard. Only the 15 items listed below were undamaged by the getting. Your crew's success depends on achieving the mother ship, so the most significant items available must be chosen for the 200-mile trip. Your group's task is to list the 15 items in terms of the importance for the crew's success. When your group has come to an contract, suggest your group's positions in the area below. Put lots 1 by the most crucial item, lots 2 by the next most important item and so on through quantity 15, minimal important item. Do not supply the same rating to more than 1 item; that is, no ties are allowed. You could have 20-minutes to complete the rankings.

Study 2 was the expansion of the results from Research 1 to a real-world academics context, utilizing a sample of students followed longitudinally through school. In this analysis, Robins and Beer (2001) reviewed whether students who entered school with self-enhancing beliefs about their academic capability were more narcissistic, more ego involved with their academic performance (i. e. , marks), more inclined to make self-serving attributions for their performance, and more likely to keep their self-esteem and well-being over time. In addition, Robins and Beer (2001) analyzed whether self-enhancement acquired adaptive benefits for two outcomes specific to the college or university environment: college quality point average (GPA) and graduation status. Study 2 was carried out by using data from the Berkeley Longitudinal Study (Robins, Hendin, & Trzesniewski, 2001), an ongoing study made to examine the development of self-esteem and personality during school. The sample consists of 508 undergraduate students who got into the School of California at Berkeley in 1992. This test is diverse in terms of ethnicity, socioeconomic position and academic capability. Recruitment of participants was conducted through the first week of their first year of college and then they were assessed each year throughout college. Participants were approached by mail and asked to complete an comprehensive questionnaire. Six assessments were conducted on the four years period. Despite problems took place specifically assessments, the majority of the analyses to be reported derive from more than 90% of the full total sample.


This article has three relatively unique features with about the consequences of positive illusions. Firstly, Robins and Beverage (2001) used explicit exterior criteria to spot people with self-enhancing beliefs: consensual judgments by peers in Analysis 1 and objective indicators of academic capacity in Research 2. Secondly, Robins and Ale (2001) related specific distinctions in self-enhancement bias to an array of benefits, including both subjective and objective indicators of adjustment. Robins and Ale (2001) thus circumvented a few of the problems due to the exclusive use of self-report actions of adjustment. Finally, Robins and Beverage (2001) related self-enhancement bias to change over time in several theoretically relevant variables. A pre-test-post-test design had been used by Robins and Beverage (2001) in Study 1 to examine whether self-enhancers reported more positive impact than individuals with correct or self-diminishing perceptions of the performance. In Study 2, the longitudinal design permitted to test promises about the long-term benefits associated with self-enhancement by using progress curve modelling of subjective well-being, self-esteem, and ego participation over 4 years of college.

According to Robins and Beverage (2001), in Research 1, self-enhancement appears to be associated with successful short-term affect regulation. Research 2 provides further support for the partnership between self-enhancement and areas of well-being. Individuals who entered university with self-enhancing beliefs about their academic potential reported higher degrees of well-being and self-esteem. Findings claim that self-enhancing individuals may experience more positive feelings about themselves in the short term but that advantage lessens as time passes. It's possible that unrealistically positive values may help a person regulate affect for a while, but at some point the average person may be required to realize that such beliefs should never be going to become a reality, a realization which may diminish well-being and self-esteem (Robins & Beverage, 2001, p. 350). Corresponding to Colvin and Stop, positive illusions are adaptive in the short term however, not in the permanent (as cited in Robins & Beer, 2001).

Second and Third Article

The second chosen article is Narcissism and attractiveness abstracted from the Journal of Research in Personality, Vol. 44, (2010), p. 133-136 written by Nicholas S. Holtzman and Michael J. Strube. The third article is Working From Pity or Reveling In Delight? Narcissism and the Regulation of Self-Conscious Emotions abstracted from Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 2, (2004), p. 150-153 written by W. Keith Campbell, Joshua D. Foster and Amy B. Brunell. These articles are related to self-regulation theory.


The strategy being found in the next article is Holtzman and Strube (2010) found relevant articles and limited the search to journal articles and reserve chapters that being written from 2001. Holtzman and Strube (2010) placed six pairs of keywords in the All Word search fields in PsychINFO: ''narciss" and ''person-perception", "narcis" and "appeal", "narcis" and "face attractiveness", ''personality disorders" and ''person-perception", "personality disorders" and "appeal", and "personality disorders" and "facial attractiveness". The All Text option dividends articles that contain the searched expression from anywhere in the abstract, keywords, journal or e book title, article or section title, subject line, or stand of contents. This technique delivered 48 articles and chapters. Seven of the articles contained relevant data. The methodology being used in the 3rd article is that of regarding to Campbell, Foster and Brunell (2004), to be able to give a good example of their own research, one of these spent several years studying the self-serving bias. These studies typically involved asking participants to activate in either an interdependent or impartial task, giving them false success or failing feedback, and then measuring attributions for the results. Participants will most likely take individual credit for successful outcomes and blame their spouse or the problem for unsuccessful effects. The reason for this self-serving behaviour was the determination to enhance/defend the self applied or gain/maintain esteem. More technical emotional benefits such as pleasure or shame were never considered. Besides that, Campbell et al. (2004) also read the Tracy and Robins article. Relating to Campbell, Foster, & Brunell (2004), hypotheses such as: "an event of elevated hubristic pride is an outcome of narcissists' self-serving attributions" and "individuals take part in self-serving attribution distortions following failure partly because they experience a danger to their hubristic take great pride in" would be worth exploration. Such research might use interesting methods (e. g. , coding of body posture as dependent actions or even mediators) and would web page link between self-regulation theme and the feelings literature.


According to Campbell et al. (2004), the situation of narcissism despite on research into self-conscious sentiment, they had several question about their use of the model to describe self-regulation among narcissists. It isn't designed to critique the style of self-conscious thoughts. Instead, they wish to offer a rivalling view of narcissistic self-regulation that uses the Tracy and Robins model, but with some other view of narcissism. Hubristic pride and shame share the key similarity of both relating steady/global attributions to the home (Campbell, Foster, & Brunell, 2004, p. 151). Claims such as "I acquired your competition because I am an awesome person" would be a predictor of hubristic pride; "I lost the competition because I am a worthless loser" will be a predictor of pity. Likewise, "I triumphed in the competition because I did everything well today" would lead to achievement-oriented satisfaction, and "I lost the competition because I did everything terribly today" would lead to guilt. Campbell et al. (2004) make three specific things

Narcissism may promote increased attention focus on the self applied.

Narcissism may impact appraisals of identity-goal relevance. Narcissism may also influence the tendency to modify self-conscious feelings through reappraisals.

Narcissistic self-enhancement biases may promote exterior attributions for failure. For your narcissist, internalization of failing would be internalization of global inability, leading to pity without any probability of guilt. The only real regulatory solution for these individuals is to externalize blame, and experience anger and rage. Conversely, narcissists may be vigilant of opportunities to internalize positive occasions, taking credit for successes whenever possible.

Campbell et al. (2004) agree that there is sufficient evidence that narcissists are self-focused. They also have essentially positive self-views, which may likely be associated with the experience of positive self-conscious thoughts. Second of all, Campbell et al. (2004) concur that narcissists make tactical importance appraisals of the relevance of results to identity goals (e. g. , minimizing the perceived need for a test after faltering). However, this is not a self-enhancement strategy that is associated specifically to narcissists. Thirdly, this article detailed narcissists do screen a self-serving style of attributions. Campbell et al. (2004) also speculate that the emotion of delight (specifically hubristic delight) played a job in this process as an final result and possibly a mediator of this attribution methodology. Campbell et al. (2004) posited that narcissists experience pity and this is linked to the implicit sense of shame driving a car the anger that accompanies external attributions created by narcissists.

According to Morf and Rhodewalt (as cited in Holtzman & Strube, 2010), narcissism can be expected from the active self-regulatory processing style of narcissism. According to this theory, narcissists attempt to regulate their behaviour in ways that maximize positive opinions from other folks, which then leads to the best goal of retaining a grandiose self-image. Consequently, higher levels of elegance in narcissists may be due to their self-regulation, such as grooming behaviours, which lead to positive opinions from others that enhances self-views. Thus, the self-regulatory view converges with the evolutionary take on the prediction that narcissists have higher levels of elegance (Holtzman & Strube, 2010).

Narcissists show smaller feelings of shame, guilt unhappiness, and other internal feelings than non-narcissists. Indeed, narcissists have less negative have an impact on and much more positive affect than non-narcissists on almost every relevant measure. There is absolutely no information that narcissists hold negative global self-feelings implicitly (Campbell, Foster, & Brunell, 2004, p. 151). When narcissists respond to threat, they screen more exterior (e. g. , delight, anger) and fewer inside (e. g. , shame, sadness) emotions. Narcissists do not seem prone to pity following threat. Somewhat, they seem to respond to threats by wanting to knock the threatener down a peg or two. Narcissists are saturated in approach (but not higher in avoidance) orientation. Narcissists are differentially centered on reaching success, not preventing failure. In mental terms, it is arguable that they make an effort to gain pride more than would others; however they would not show a greater want to avoid shame (Campbell, Foster, & Brunell, 2004, p. 152). Narcissists try to regulate their behaviour in ways that maximize positive feedback from other folks, which then contributes to the ultimate goal of preserving a grandiose self-image (Holtzman & Strube, 2010, p. 134).


From the evaluation of the research, we found that narcissism can be related to positive illusion theory. Narcissism and positive illusion talk about some same characteristic that can be observed through perspective of ego involvement, self-esteem and self-enhancement. People of positive illusions contain the trend to be over self-confidence over themselves. Generally in most occasion, positive illusion will improve the positivity of one's self-views and as a function of maximizing self-esteem. However, positive illusions are aware of their own imperfectives and that folks around do not reveal the same self-view, yet they choose to ignore or denying the info that cripple their self-worth. On the other hand, positive illusions may experience more positive emotions about themselves for a while but that this advantage lessens as time passes. From your articles we've read, we're able to understand that positive illusion individuals were seen positively by their peers after a brief interaction but that this initial favourable impression deteriorated after some more hours of contact. Positive illusions were eventually considered hostile, protective, and maintaining brag. Paulhus' research raises the probability that positive illusions may be beneficial for a while but maladaptive over the long-term according to Colvin, Stop and Funder (as cited in Robins & Beverage, 2001, p. 341).

After we doing our research and review the publications, we conclude that self-regulation is more suitable to clarify and discuss the phenomena of narcissism looking at to positive illusion. It is discovered that, self-regulate can make a person to become narcissistic. Self-regulation is the capability to separately self-monitor, and self-monitor inside a team environment which affects perception of specific and team performance targets, and self confidence of success. However, in this example, narcissists have a tendency to regulate themselves with techniques that maximize positive reviews from other folks, increase pride but not avoid shame. Which means that self-regulation actually lead to narcissism. A couple of few details that support our view

Narcissist will regulate self-conscious emotions reappraise negative events as irrelevant to identification goals. For instance, a narcissist will feel that it is alright if he lost in a competition because he can concentrate on his job down the road.

Narcissist regulate to not avoid shame and without any possibility of guilt if indeed they fail. They choose at fault others, and experience anger and trend instead. Conversely, narcissists control to use credit for successes whenever possible and they don't appreciate other's hard work.

To make it clearer, why don't we look into the dissimilarities in self-regulation between narcissists and non-narcissists. It can clearly be observed in the tests conducted by Campbell, Foster and Brunell (2004) who conducted a study where two experiments were conducted. In both tests, participants were given false reviews that is either bogus success or inability. It was discovered that both narcissists and non-narcissists encourage themselves to success and prevent failure. That is due to the participants make an effort to achieve hubristic take great pride in and avoid pity. Furthermore, when narcissists receive threat and negative feedback about themselves, they will self-defence no matter what and try to blame others or find excuses to ignore their failing whereas non-narcissists tend to have limits.

In order to understand more deeply about the partnership between narcissists and self-regulator, why don't we describe it by using model. One of the most elaborated self-regulatory style of narcissism is the dynamic self-regulatory control model stated by Morf and Rhodewalt (as cited in Holtzman & Strube, 2010, p. 134). The model targets narcissist's efforts to modify positive self-views. The model consists of four interacting components: self-knowledge, intrapersonal self-regulatory process, interpersonal behaviours and communal interactions. Another model is Paulhus's "minimalist model" of narcissism (as cited in Campbell & Foster). This model focuses on the basic structure of narcissistic personality that is high egotism and low morality to be crucial for narcissists interpersonal functioning. Predicated on these two models, we can conclude that narcissists are related to self-regulatory since narcissists will regulate themselves in positive views and high egotism.

Based on our understanding, we tabulate the difference between positive illusions theory and do it yourself rules theory as followed

Table 1: Evaluation between Self-Regulation Theory and Positive Illusion Theory

Self Regulation Theory

Positive Illusion Theory



Regulate/motivate these to feel ego

Feeling themselves is ego. Positive thinking.

React badly when receive negative feedback

Won't react badly when receive negative reviews but will deny it.

From the analysis of narcissism, we found that narcissism is a negative health problems as everyone thought. There is also healthy and positive part than it which is constructive narcissism. Constructive narcissists are not perfect. They still desire to be admired, nor kindly accept criticism. They could also be manipulative, insensitive or extremely demanding particularly when focusing on achieving their goals. They enjoy the limelight and are comfortable being the centre of attention. They recognize that their public shows and impression management efforts have value and meaning besides self-aggrandizement. The difference is that they understand their own limits although they have tremendous determination and extensive confidence in their skills and ideas. They recognize that they lack certain abilities or that some things are simply beyond them(McFarlin & Sweeney, 2000, p. 221). Constructive narcissists could be more concerned about what's right for the others than in what is right for these people personally. It means that they tend to be flexible also to look once and for all information before making important decisions(McFarlin & Sweeney, 2000, p. 222). When combine with their self confidence, constructive narcissists frequently have the wherewithal to sketch out challenging visions that rally, encourage and energize others. And usually their pitch is that the best way to accomplish a typical goal is through collective and co-operative action. In a nutshell, constructive narcissists are infused with optimism about their capability to help make great things happen, however they recognize practical realities(McFarlin & Sweeney, 2000, p. 224).

In our daily lives, we may have enormous opportunities to talk with people who have narcissism. We may be working for employer who is a narcissist. Therefore, we ought to learn how to cope with a narcissist. A narcissist offers many negative personalities. Among the negative personalities is that of a narcissist does not listen to others. For narcissist to listen to us, we should become an expert which means we live much better than our employer. It is because narcissist is merely thinking about people they can use of. If we've a great idea and could not get into narcissist ear, we have to frame it in a way that shows him how he will benefit individually. Besides that, if we want to stop narcissist from an action that could done damage to the company, we have to show that it'll damage him in person. Another negative personality of a narcissist is paranoid. The simplest way of working with mildly irrational narcissistic paranoia is humour. Humour is the psychological reality principle and it takes the environment out of the paranoiac. A narcissist tends to be an overcontrolling and overcompetitive company. The necessity of control in a narcissist sometimes will overburn his employees. Narcissist employer often piles more work that could impossible to be achieved. In cases like this, we have to not do everything our company instructs us because the employer is likely to forget about the number of assignments directed at us. A narcissist also often explodes in anger. The reason behind a narcissist to get furious is when he confronted with something that might be true but he does not wish to listen to. In this context, we have to either take it or hold out until the storm moves. If we present him with debate, we might be well known or get terminated.


In brief, we conclude that self-regulation theory is more desirable to describe narcissism than positive illusion. Through the discussion, we can see that self-regulation in narcissists attempts to motivate these to feel positive, high egotism, respond aggressively when get negative feedback from others and they behave so in long-term. While for positive illusion, these are over-confidence, feel ego and have positive thinking in them. Besides that, they will refuse the negative comment from others and they respond such in short-term. Therefore, narcissism is more appropriate to be described by self regulation theory compared to positive illusion theory.

The review of self legislation theory is important in order to understand about narcissism. It really is discovered that narcissists are self-focused, will control themselves so they don't have negative self-opinions so when they are unsuccessful, they tends to blame for others in order to avoid pity. Besides that, it is available that narcissists are insufficient interest in warm and caring social relationships. Furthermore, narcissists are attention seeking, prefer to showcase, and self-defence at all cost when get negative feedback. Overall, the self-regulatory relates to the narcissism.

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