Lobes of the mind and their associated functions


Occipital Lobes

The occipital lobe is situated at the low central back of the mind. It is regarded as the primary center for processing visual stimuli. This lobe is also involved with color and movement discrimination, and visuospatial processing. Any significant trauma behind the top can cause subtle changes in the visual-perception area. It included in cortical tissue, this is also known as the visual cortex. This part is split into many subdivisions, each plays role in processing visual data from the outside environment.

As light reaches the sight enters, it passes by way of a complex pathway in the occipital lobe. After the light hits the retina, the information received is transmitted to the thalamus. The brain interprets the light that the eyes received. After that, the axons show the image in the visual cortex that tells the particular eyes are seeing.

Temporal Lobes

The temporal lobe can be found on either side of the brain, right above the ears, that curve forward from the occipital lobes to below the frontal lobes. Its main function is to process auditory stimuli. It offers several divisions that deal with smell, taste, visual associations, bearing, some areas of memory, and sense of self. A head injury that impacts the temporal lobe area of the brain could cause direct and diffuse effects.

The temporal lobe has many subdivisions like the occipital lobe. When the auditory region of the temporal lobe is stimulated, sensations of sound are formed. And in addition, the auditory association area has connections to the primary regions and other parts of the mind. It aids in the perception of auditory inputs, allowing for the interpretation of everything we are hearing. The neurons in this region have specific jobs, such as registering a sound's loudness, pitch and timbre.

Lying mostly in the temporal lobe, is the Wernicke's area. This area is very essential for speech. This allows for us to comprehend or interpret speech when speaking.

Parietal Lobes

The parietal lobes are flat, plate-like areas, located at the top middle part of the brain above the temporal lobe. It consists of two major divisions, the anterior and posterior parts, that plays complementary roles. It includes the sensory cortex and association areas. They are involved with processing information about body sensation, touch and spatial organization. The parietal lobe is also involved in secondary language and visual processing.

At the anterior area of the lobe, behind the motor cortex, lies a strip of cells called the somatosensory cortex. It receives information, such as touch and temperature, sensations of pain and pressure from your skin and proprioception. This is actually the primary region responsible for incoming stimuli.

While the posterior part of the lobe, is the one that analyzes and integrates everything to give a sense of spatial awareness. The mind is able to know where each part of the body is found in regards to its surroundings. Damage to this part, would lead to apraxia or clumsiness in manipulating objects.

Lastly, the parietal lobes help in maintaining focus or spatial attention. This can help a person shift attention from location to location.

Frontal Lobes

The frontal lobe is considered to be the major area of the cortex, and performs the most complex function. It really is situated in the front of the mind and extending back to the most notable of the top. One of the roles of this lobe can be involved with intellectual functioning, such as thought processes, planning, behaviour and memory. Additionally it is the center of voluntary and planned behaviours. We have the ability to control parts of the body at will.

The motor cortex, which is strip of cells that stretches across the top of the brain, is where almost all neural activities of muscular movements are directed. The strips have areas that governs specific movements of the muscle.

The Broca's area/motor speech area is also found in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe, contained by the supplemental motor area. That is linked with the Wernicke's area by the bundle of nerve fibers called the arcuate fasciculus. This facilitates what assembled from the Wernicke's area and then relayed to Broca's area to translate into proper sounds.

The large area of the lobe, the "silent" area or the prefrontal cortex, is free from processing sensory data and movement. This is actually the part of the brain that defines what humanity is. Additionally it is referred to as the association cortex, where information from both the inner and outer worlds are interpreted.

Limbic System

The limbic system is a network of ring-shaped structures, located in the center of the brain, at the top of the brain stem. It is associated with feelings and behaviours, such as motivation, gratification, thought and memory. It is also in charge of controlling body temperature, blood pressure, and glucose levels.

It regulates the complexity of emotions, alongside the sensory and motor systems, which leads to complex human behaviour.

The structures of the limbic system will be the the one which receives input from all the sense, where the sense of smell plays an important role. The limbic system is closely linked with the Cerebral cortex and the reticular formation.

The ramifications of the limbic system when it comes to emotions are widespread. Most communications sent by the limbic system, results in the hypothalamus, linked directly below the pituitary gland. This gland controls the body's hormones that regulate the behaviour and autonomic system.

How does the aging process impact the neurological system?


Some of the age-related neurologic manifestations may include the ff: cognition, pain, sensation and motor responses. Changes in both function and the structure of the cells and tissues that are responsible for physiologic responses, produces these manifestations. Neurologic functions are altered as a result of the changes in the cells and tissues. Typical changes that occur will be the ff

Decrease in brain mass

Enlargement of cerebral ventricles

Decrease amount of neurons, processes of dendrites and synapses

Decrease myelin

Altered production of neurotransmitters

Most of the functional alterations of the neurologic system results from the involvement of peripheral nerves and degenerative alterations of the spine and muscles. It is also typical of aging. Factors that are essential to the promotion of neurologic responses, like neurotransmitters, enzymes, and receptors, are altered by growing older.

Often the structural changes that occur in the torso are the ff: sensory deficits, motor dysfunction, sleep disturbances, impaired memory and cognition. Enough time it requires for an activity to be accomplished is prolonged when the central processing becomes slow. Other changes that are associated with aging are mild forgetfulness, reduction in vocabulary and learning difficulties.

When cognitive functions decline, elderly often activities depression and anxiety. Psychological disorders may complicate physical health, such as reducing motivation or ability to keep health by doing everyday task.

Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in conditions of function.



It is a partition of the Autonomic Nervous System that controls such activities as hormone secretion and heartbeat. During the fight or flight response, the SNS releases norepinephrine, pupil dilation, escalates the heartbeat, it dilates the airways and the blood vessels in the muscles, increase blood circulation pressure, oliguria, constipation, and decrease activity of the digestive tract.

The PNS is the one responsible for the slowing and steadying of the body's internal activity, such as the following: Decreased heart rate and respiratory rate, pupil constriction, release of acetylcholine, increase blood circulation to the organs mixed up in digestion, increased salivation, release of digestive juices, polyuria, diarrhea

WEB OUTPUTS (http://www. internationalbrain. org/?q=node/149)

Chemosensory impairment is common after having a head trauma that often results chemosensory disturbances. These disturbances are often a hindrance to a person's everyday activities.

Following traumatic brain injury, the individual commonly experience olfactory dysfunction, and less common, gustatory disturbances, depending on severity of the injury. These disturbances that the patient encounters may be the following: complete or partial, sensory loss, distortion, or today's of phantom sensations.

Olfactory disturbances may result from mechanical blockage or disruption from fractured bones. These fractures result in a amount of injuries and alterations in the olfactory system.

Neurosensory deficits may derive from the mechanical injuries of the olfactory pathways, sticking or damaging important olfactory neurons that are protected by bones. Direct injury or sear force can damage it.

Olfactory critical center deficits might occur from bruises or bleeding of the tissues in the brain caused by trauma.

Projectiles and fractures may post risk to cortical centers. However, a primary injury to the cortical center would not cause a complete lack of sense of smell (anosmia), but rather, it only causes impairment in odor recognition, and not detection.

Gustatory sensory losses are not mostly afflicted by head trauma, but instead, are results from medications used to control head trauma patients. The usage of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics and narcotic analgesics, may render salivary production.

Although neurosensory deficits are possible in head trauma patients, it is also unlikely to happen as the arrangements of neurons are deeper and protected.

Olfactory disturbances have higher prevalence than the gustatory system, but taste deficits are more likely to happen than olfactory deficits. As the meals pass through the cavity, it releases odorants that ate detected by the olfactory epithelium.

The assessment of the chemosensory impairment often happens during the rehabilitation phase of your client. Frequently, identification of the deficits are delayed, due to management done to the patient.

A thorough history taking should be done to head trauma patients. It will explain the nature of the deficit, potential causes, and impact of the disturbance. Secondary sources may also provide information, if the individual can't.

Examinations of the individual require neurologic evaluation. Lacerations, edema, and tenderness can further explain the causative mechanism of the trauma.

Nasal endoscopy is also performed on patients with chemosensory complaints. This will help visualize or give information which may contribute to the disturbance.

The oral cavity is inspected and evaluated for gustatory complaints. Nerve injuries are suggested by laceration, bony fragments, bloody or CSF discharge from the ear and etc. Assessment of the reflexes would also help verify the integrity of cranial nerves.

Radiologic testing is also helpful in deciding the pathological mechanism of the several disturbances that occurs in a head trauma patient. This can help identify and locate the trauma or fractures.

Clinical test is also performed to help find more answers to the sensory deficits.

There is not a specific treatment for these deficits. Surgical repair can be carried out for mechanical disruptions, while medical therapies are done to pay for other disturbances. Patients also needs to do counselling for further studying safety issues and compensatory strategies.

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