Logic and psychology of scientific creativity
Science is usually referred to the sphere of creative activity, although there are many stages of work in the spider that have a creative character rather than a creative one. Science begins and ends.
is creativity, and in the process a lot of routine, requiring great dedication, will, zeal. However, the development of science is always associated with novelty, with discoveries. In the personal plan of the scientist, the well-known physicist A. Dzikiki singled out the following components:
1) creativity (like the ability to generate something that has never been known before, not seen, not observed);
2) leadership (as an ability to inspire and convince people);
3) innovative leadership (as the ability to inspire and convince people to perform acts of creativity);
4) motivation (as an engine necessary to achieve the goal).
At the same time A. Dzikiki notes the non-identity of science and technology. If science forces our intellect to make discoveries (which does not imply an invention, namely the discovery of new laws of nature), then technology invents. And in this context, science is mainly developed through research. And technology is through design.
Schools in science: origin, development, decay
Science is a social institution. And its development is largely determined by social patterns. The basic social unit of science is considered to be the scientific school. The scientific school does not necessarily have organizational and administrative forms. It is a phenomenon of social development of scientific concepts and paradigms in the framework of an informal collective that shares and develops a certain approach in science.
M. G. Yaroshevsky, revealing the concept of "scientific school", pointed out that "the term" school "... for all its uncertainty & lt; ... & gt; means, according to the generally accepted opinion of historians, first, the unity of teaching creativity and the process of research, and secondly, the position held by one group of scientists in relation to others. "
Highlights the following characteristics of scientific schools: initiative, independence, the presence of an internal impulse of development, commitment, persistence of convictions, dissatisfaction with what has been achieved. In scientific school as a social community, it is important to scientific self-determination and self-identification of members of the collective as belonging to a single community that shares a certain system of scientific ideas. Moreover, each member of the scientific school is self-determined in relation to the system of basic ideas of the scientific school in their development, i.e. believing which direction and what aspect he is developing in the framework of the scientific school. The self-determination of the members of a scientific school largely occurs through the definition of a position in relation to the leader of a scientific school.
There are various forms of scientific schools:
1) a science and education school designed to shape future researchers;
2) the research team as a group of scientists jointly developing, under the guidance of the leader (head of the school), a research program he has created or created;
3) the direction in science, arising from the establishment of a certain tradition, embracing a group of scientists and research teams;
4) the scientists who prepared the iodine with the guidance of a well-known academic thesis, who became candidates and doctors of sciences.
Oh. Grezneva offers such a typology of scientific schools, taking into account the different grounds for classification:
1) by the type of connections between members of the scientific school - the scientific current, "invisible college", scientific grouping
2) the status of the scientific idea - experimental, theoretical;
3) in the breadth of the subject area under study - narrow profile, wide-profile;
4) for the functional purpose of the knowledge produced - fundamental, applied;
5) in the form of organization of activities of students - with individual forms of organization of scientific research work, with collective forms of organization of research;
6) on the nature of the relationships between generations - single-level, multi-level;
7) but the degree of institutionalization - informal, circles, institutional;
8) in terms of location - national, local, personal.
M. G. Yaroshevsky called a number of signs of a scientific school, among them: the presence of a leader who sets the vector for the development of a scientific school, the existence of a research program that unites the collective on the basis of a single goal; common approaches (or a single paradigm) of joint activities.
The movement of science in social terms is largely associated with the birth, development and disintegration of scientific schools. Scientific schools can cease their activities with the departure of the leader, but can develop, branching in various directions, which are opened by students and followers of the founder of the scientific school. Relations between scientific schools in one scientific field in many ways set the debate and discussion on the subject of research, by method, on a theoretical basis and how data is interpreted. Such a polemic can be very acute. But it is the diversity of approaches and scientific schools, their interaction and opposition that determine the living process of the movement of scientific thought, scientific cognition.
(See task 4 to chapter 1.)
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