Loneliness as a phenomenon is born in the process of individualization.
According to E. Fromm, the position in which human loneliness is realized today was predicted by far-sighted thinkers of the last century. S. Kierkegaard described a helpless individual, torn apart by painful doubts, feelings of loneliness and insignificance. F. Nietzsche visually depicted the nascent at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. nihilism, embodied later in Nazism, and painted a portrait of the "superman" as a negation of the lost and insignificant person he saw in reality.
Loneliness, according to E. Fromm, serves as a breeding ground for the emergence of specific values. The fact that ideas have an emotional basis is extremely important, because it gives the key to understanding the spirit of any culture. Different societies - or classes within society - have a specific character, on the basis of which different ideas develop and gain strength. For example, the idea of work and success as the main goals of life, according to E. Fromm, could captivate a modern person only because of his loneliness and doubts. Try to inspire the idea of continuous efforts and the desire for success to the Indians in pueblo or Mexican peasants - you simply will not understand; they will hardly even understand what you are talking about, although you will speak their language, because these people have a completely different character. "
Thus, loneliness is not only a psychological, but also a social and cultural phenomenon.
Danish religious philosopher, the predecessor of existentialism Seren Kierkegaard believed that human suffering is associated with his loneliness. The pain arises from the realization that God creates the world out of nothing, therefore, from his point of view, reality is a nothingness, an illusion of being. God does not know what is nothing. It opens only to man. How does this happen? In a state of fear? The comprehension of the phenomenon of fear reveals to man the basis of his existence - his orientation to nothingness; nothing - that's what preceded the birth of man, which was the secret of his innocence, "cross the border" separating him from the animal, from any natural being ".
Fear not only breeds suffering. He has the status of "sweet horror" - beckons, attracts:
Everything, everything that is threatened with destruction, For the heart of a mortal Is hidden Unutterable pleasures ...
(Alexander Pushkin. Feast during the plague)
In the book "Fear and Awe" interpreted a famous parable about Abraham, to whom God commanded the sacrifice of the only son of Jacob. The question arises: if the Lord knew how Abraham would act, why did he torment him? As Augustine Blessed noticed, God knew, but Abraham did not know that he would stand the test. And while he did not know what he would choose, one can not talk about choice. The reality of his obedience, his very action. God knew exactly what Abraham would do, and not otherwise. Considering that verification is not needed, we, in effect, declare unnecessary everything that is led to God.
My own individual suffering, of course, is taken from general experience. Other people, like me, in other or similar situations, also suffered torment. How was it comprehended in the history of mankind? Perhaps there were whole epochs when a person did not feel the fragility of his existence. The Jerusalem philosopher Martin Buber, reflecting on what causes suffering in the ancestral experience of humanity, calls such sources of suffering as the disintegration of a single picture of the cosmos, a holistic view of himself, the atomization of the society. Concerning the first problem, M. Buber notes that in history there were many periods when a person felt the strength of his world and that this world is reliably placed, as it is said in the Christian allegory, between chaos and heaven.
For example, in the era of pagan Antiquity, the Greeks saw the world as a closed space in which the corresponding place was assigned to a person. Man in the perception of the Greeks was only a part of the cosmos. He had his corner in the universe. This gave rise to serene well-being: the sky protected man. Of course, suffering does not only arise from homelessness. However, in general, the universe seemed comfortable to the Greeks: they had their own house.
Christianity, apparently, destroyed this sensation of the earthly firmament, enclosed in some kind of harmonious unity. It showed that the house can fly into the abyss. This is the proclamation of the apocalypse. Perhaps this experience of horror is not consistent with the original spirit of this teaching. But it was Christianity that deprived people of the feeling of a serene assurance of being.
While the individual struggles with his own ghosts, it is found that the cosmos does not at all serve as a reliable abode for him. A man of the post-Renaissance epoch feels like a loner before infinity. He reveals the terrible spaces of the universe that embrace it from all sides. He feels bound in one corner of an immeasurable infinity, perceives himself as a shadow that lasts for an instant and never returns. The man asks: who created me? By whose order and under whose direction have this place and this time been determined for me? Before the omnipotent grandeur of nature, mountains, seas, an endless starry night, a feeling of depression comes to the person. The eternal silence of the endless worlds terrifies him.
The famous existential philosopher M. Boss believed that a good starting point for discussing human events is the phenomenon of loneliness. According to Boss, the very phenomenon of loneliness is impossible as such without the presence of the phenomenon of compatibility. Loneliness always points ahead to some consistency, eventuality. The fundamental feature of the existential eventuality of human beings is that they together support the openness of the world. This manifests itself in joint ways of perceiving and responding to what meets people in their common life space. However, this eventuality in the joint world is not the same as the collective presence of individual subjects, which can be represented as physical objects occupying a certain part of the space.
It is thanks to this our fundamental eventuality as the primal condition of our being that we are able to instantly understand a friend. Otherwise, says Boss, we could only observe the attempt to combine individual encapsulated mental images. However, in the phenomenon of joint human behavior there is no place for dialogue about endopsychic material.
The actual reality is that when we see people together, they appear to us in the unity of their relationship to the objects of the world that they share. And it's not just about physical objects. People are able to directly comprehend other people without any hypothetical empathy, but simply on the basis of the fact that we are all beings of the same species. A species that exists in a single understanding of its relation to the same phenomena. Phenomena that we all highlight through our openness to the world. It is thanks to this fundamental connectivity of all people with each other that we are able to understand each other instantly, without any empathy.
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