Loyalty and dedication of the organization's staff
Positive attitude of an employee to the organization in which he works, and the behavior corresponding to this relation in United States-language scientific publications is often determined by various terms: loyalty, commitment, loyalty, patriotism. Unity of opinions on this issue has not yet been worked out.
On the basis of dictionary definitions, the following aspects of the semantic field of the concept of "loyalty (applicable to the organization):
- benevolence, affability, openness of the employee both to the company as a whole and to other employees
- honesty, integrity;
- loyalty, devotion, commitment;
- compliance with rules, laws, refusal of reprehensible and hostile actions.
In general, the loyalty of the staff can mean the fidelity of the employees of their organization. With respect to the organization, you can talk about a loyal, loyal, dedicated employee only if he shows (or intends to exercise) voluntary activity aimed at the interests of the organization. In the case of non-harm, formal compliance with rules and regulations, we can talk about a law-abiding, trustworthy, maybe honest, but not dedicated employee.
There are many different perspectives on organizational loyalty. One of the most common approaches is the security approach. Employees are initially seen as potentially disloyal, and the main efforts are directed at identifying the prerequisites of disloyal behavior, which means deliberately causing damage to the organization. At the same time, the main emphasis is on identifying employees who are most prone to offenses. Methods are used to assess the reliability of personnel, including surveys on polygraph, analysis of information received from other employees, screening tests, photographs of working hours, control of premises, etc. In this case, loyalty is understood as the behavior of the employee, which does not harm the organization. The application of strict organizational measures to employees will not contribute to the growth of corporate culture and voluntary activity of workers in the interests of the organization.
You can pay attention to the concept of "unreliability", where loyalty is said not only from the point of not harming, but also from the point of view of obtaining potential benefits. Loyalty is defined as a sense of loyalty to the organization, ability and willingness to reconcile with one's requirements and deeply accept others.
Factors affecting the occurrence of loyalty, according to KV Kharskii:
- attention to the employee as a person;
- participation in solving his problems;
- previous experience;
- a sense of pride in the place of work.
From the employee's point of view, it can be considered loyal if it has a positive or neutral attitude towards the company. From the point of view of the leader, the devotion of the organization is expressed in the conscientious fulfillment of all assignments and manifests itself in the friendly relations that have developed in the team, in the presence of team spirit. A loyal employee seeks to stay with the company as long as possible, sees its advantages, coordinates its efforts with the actions of other people. Loyalty is always based on the employee's satisfaction with important aspects of the company's activities and appears when his own life plans coincide with the strategic plans for its development. A loyal employee not only shares the values of the company, but believes that it will be held in it as a professional, will have prospects for growth.
The scientific literature has not yet developed an unambiguous understanding of what is "organizational loyalty".
Social psychologists consider the loyal attitude of employees to the organization as an attitude (attitude). In this case, we are talking about a socio-psychological setting. In this case, Loyal means "staying within the bounds of legality, correctly and sympathetically related to the organization in which he works". Loyal attitude is also interpreted as a person's motivation to work for the benefit of the organization, to defend its interests in various spheres of business.
In determining loyalty, the existence of mutual obligations between employees and the employer is emphasized: "workers pay with their loyalty, and management takes care of their well-being and satisfaction of their personal needs." In this context, the concept of intergroup identification is used when loyalty to its group (company) means alienation from other groups.
Investigating the phenomenon of loyalty of personnel in conflict resolution, a loyal employee is defined as a person who "identifies himself with the organization where he works, associates his successes and failures in all spheres of his life with activity". Loyalty of staff is understood by researchers as a willingness of an employee to meet corporate expectations; form behavior according to the framework set by the organization or management; resistance to provocative effects from the outside; compliance with earlier agreements; internal acceptance by the individual of organizational goals and values, a non-valued and uncritical attitude to the life taking place in the organization.
Behavioral indicators of loyalty are:
- a lot of time to work, than is required formally;
- responsibility, good faith;
- the employee's work for the organization's purposes, both in favorable and unfavorable conditions;
- compliance with established norms and formalities;
- focus on interaction with other people for the benefit of the organization;
- constant monitoring of the situation and creative approach to the organization's activities.
Q. Dominiak defines: loyalty of the staff is a benevolent, correct, sincere, respectful attitude to management, employees, other persons, their actions, to the company as a whole; the employee's conscious performance of his work in accordance with the goals and objectives of the company and in the company's interests, as well as compliance with norms, rules and obligations, including informal ones, with respect to the company, management, employees and other subjects of interaction.
To private types of loyalty and loyalty can be attributed:
- organizational commitment - the identification of a person with a company, expressed in the desire to work in it and contribute to its success;
- emotional commitment - the psychological attachment of the employee to people, place and business;
- commitment to the calculation - attachment to the organization, due to any personal motives of the person.
- commitment to debt - a moral obligation to stay in the organization, do their work and achieve their goals.
In organizational psychology, there are two options for answering the question: how is loyalty formed? The first point of view is a behavioral approach, the second is an installation approach.
Formation of employee loyalty can occur as a result of committing actions that will not subsequently allow him to change his position or line of conduct. The behavioral approach is based on the assumption that the degree of correspondence between the behavior of people and their actions depends on three conditions:
- actions should be perceived as a result of free choice;
- they must be committed publicly
- the rejection of them should be perceived as coupled with difficulties and losses.
As part of the behavioral approach, loyalty is seen as the degree of employee willingness to continue working in the company, the desire to remain in the organization, or as an approved behavior that goes beyond formal corporate requirements. The level of loyalty is defined as a function of costs and rewards associated with belonging to a particular profession or organization.
Loyalty is the result of some "betting" that a person does by relating external interests with the appropriate direction of his activity. " Loyalty arises when these "additional rates", such as work-related skills, age or other factors, are combined and perceived by the employee as accumulated investments in the organization, rewards or are estimated as requiring less cost compared to similar work elsewhere. For example, an additional pension, established business and personal ties with colleagues, etc. Loyalty can be the result of both the accumulation of investments in the organization and the reduction of opportunities (the reluctance to change jobs to a more profitable but requiring additional training, the desire to stay in the organization because of fear of not finding another job, for example, in connection with reaching pre-retirement age, etc.).
This approach is compatible with the concept of loyalty, based on the theory of exchange. Loyalty develops as a result of employee satisfaction with the remuneration and incentive proposals of the organization. These employee benefits will need to be donated if he leaves the company. Thus, a person is forced to be committed to an organization, because monetary, social, psychological and other costs associated with care are rated by him as higher than the possible remuneration in the new place.
The set-up approach defines loyalty as an emotional response, including concern and concern for the company and colleagues, a sense of affiliation, interdependence or trust. At the same time, loyalty characterizes the relationship between the worker and the organization. So, for example, L. Jewell writes about the devotion of the organization as a variable, reflecting the strength of the connection between the person and the organization in which he works, the connection that exists in his presentation.
The set-up approach assumes that loyalty is formed as a combination of previous work experience, perception of organization and personal characteristics of a person. The combination of these factors leads to the emergence of positive feelings towards the company, which are then converted into loyalty. Some researchers believe loyalty is a positive emotional reaction to the organization, including its goals and values.
There are three components of loyalty:
1) identification - the employee's acceptance of the organization's goals and values as their own;
2) involvement - psychological immersion or "dissolution" in their work activities;
3) actually loyalty - the feeling of love and attachment to the organization.
The degree of expressiveness of loyalty is considered by researchers as a measure of the person's identification with the company, involvement in its activities. It includes:
1) the strength of conviction and acceptance of the company's goals and values;
2) the degree of willingness to exert considerable effort on its behalf;
3) the strength of the desire to maintain company ownership.
Within the framework of the institutional approach to loyalty, there are also many views on its nature and forms. The concept of affective (emotional) loyalty as a form of psychological attachment to an organization, a set of strong positive attitudes toward an organization deserved the greatest attention.
The basis of this concept was laid by R. Kanter. It will give the following definition of loyalty: "the willingness of social actors to give energy and be committed to the organization" and "application of a person's emotional fund to a group". The researcher describes three types of loyalty: continuation, rallying and control. The first type connects the cognitive system of the person with social roles, the second - the cathexic (emotional, energy) relationship, the third - the estimated one with the norms.
Within the framework of the affective approach, organizational loyalty is seen as well as a sense of pride in the organization and the desire to join it, emotional attachment to the organization, identification and involvement in the organization, the degree of psychological attachment to the organization, etc.
The concept of moral (value) loyalty is based on the employee's deep acceptance of organizational norms, goals, values, mission and identification of a person with the authority of the organization. Usually the concept of moral loyalty is considered as part of affective loyalty and is defined as the acceptance of organizational goals and values.
A number of researchers speak of normative loyalty as a person's acceptance of the obligation to remain in the organization. They believe that loyalty is determined by the value of loyalty as such and a duty to the organization. The employee continues to assist the organization, because he believes that he must behave in this way, because it is "right", and such behavior is expected of him. This form of loyalty, in the authors' opinion, differs from affective, because it reflects a sense of commitment to work in an organization, but does not always involve emotional attachment.
Obviously, the ambiguity in the understanding of the construct itself is "organizational loyalty" has created certain difficulties in the development of the concept of loyalty and its interpretation. At the present time, proponents of the conceptual concept gradually agree that loyalty is a multidimensional construct. But the available research does not allow us to uniquely identify the components of loyalty, establish the prerequisites and consequences of this occurrence.
The most prevalent now is the three-component concept proposed by D. Meyer and N. Allen: organizational loyalty in it is defined as the psychological link between an employee and an organization, reducing the likelihood that an employee will voluntarily leave the organization. Within the framework of this concept three components of loyalty are distinguished:
1) affective loyalty: identification and involvement, as well as emotional attachment to the organization (in the company remain because they want it);
2) continued loyalty: awareness by employees of the costs associated with leaving the organization (in the company remain because it is beneficial);
3) normative loyalty: awareness of obligations towards the organization (in the company remain because they feel a sense of duty to it).
Analysis of various approaches to the study of organizational loyalty made it possible to identify a number of components of this construct:
1. Emotional attitude to the organization. It can be as positive - a sense of loyalty, loyalty, pride, etc. (and in this case corresponds to loyalty), and negative (corresponds to disloyalty).
2. Separation and adoption of values, goals, norms, rules, procedures, decisions of the organization (cognitive mechanisms lie at the core). Here we can also distinguish two poles, corresponding to loyalty and disloyalty.
3. Intention (willingness) to act in a certain way. The positive pole of this axis most often involves the application of efforts in the interests of the organization (basic or additional) and the intention to continue working in the organization.
Such a structure corresponds to the concept of a social and psychological setting, which includes emotional, cognitive and behavioral components. The emotional component includes the feelings and emotions experienced by a person in relation to the organization. The cognitive component is the division and acceptance of organizational values, goals, norms, rules, procedures, decisions, etc. To the behavioral (intentional) component is the willingness to exert efforts in the interests of the organization.
The level of organizational loyalty of an employee can serve as an indicator of his satisfaction with organizational culture, management style and other phenomena, as empirical studies have revealed that, more often than not, employees disloyal to the organization assess its organizational culture as hierarchical, whereas loyalists believe that their organization has a harmonious-mixed type of organizational culture. When choosing the optimal type of organizational culture for them, disloyal employees tend to give preference to the clan variant, whereas loyalists usually believe that the existing option will be effective in the future. Such assessments of disloyal employees indicate that their membership in the organization is only of a formal nature, from their point of view, the organization does nothing to become a "second home" for them, "the family", and therefore they do not show loyalty to it .
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