Mass ideological processes, the Rise of the masses yesterday...

Mass ideological processes

Uprising of the masses yesterday and today

As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• the main milestones of the psychology of the crowd;

• what is the revolutionary psychology of the masses;

be able to

• characterize the stereotyped behavior of masses;


• The skills of analyzing the obsession with the masses.

The people are the people,

And God, and freak.

He or is silent,

Or yelling.

The people are soap,

The blind crowd,

Blunt, blunt,

Gloom, is stupid ...

Rimma Kazakova

Mass interpretation in Antiquity and Renaissance

Politicians and philosophers already in ancient times drew attention to the role of the masses in politics. The ancient philosopher Plato built his ideal state as a consistent embodiment of the principle of social justice and order that makes life, the organization of life simple and understandable. From artisans it is expected that they provide material prosperity, and this contribution to the state is sufficient to set before them some special moral tasks. However, if the two highest strata of society - guards and rulers - occupy this highest place, then from their social function, and not from something else, high demands arise for their readiness to fulfill the duties corresponding to the highest mission.

Plato believed that to deal with their business and not interfere in others' - this is justice. Otherwise society will be struck by chaos. It is necessary to know your place and not to encroach not unrealizable. The undoubted advantage of this ideal project is that it is extremely transparent, understandable to every thinking person, is associated with common sense. Not only the Hellenist, but also the man of our day understands that society must be protected from external enemies, and that order be maintained. Plato obviously could not even imagine that the influence of philosophy on social life can turn out to be negative, directive and dangerous.

We can note the intellectual bravery of Plato, who was probably one of the first to try to create some kind of ideal project for people's livelihood, he tried to make this project as clear as possible not only for the wise, but for every single person. Moreover, Plato tried to derive the social structure of society from human nature, from the structure of the human soul. He wanted to show that only such a shared being of people can have strength and stability.

Plato did not interpret, for example, universal suffrage. The idea of ​​the equality of all people was alien to him. Can anyone be a hero, feel like a free citizen or think in full power of his mind? Imitation of heroes is a powerful factor in social life, but it is forgotten nowadays. Our ideal is not a daredevil, not an ascetic, nor a bearer of valor or fearlessness, but a "man of success."

Funny, but Plato explains in detail who is not worthy of imitation. Do not take as a model of women, slaves, slaves and bad people. However, this is not all: you also do not have to imitate the blacksmiths, the various artisans, the rowers on the triremes and their bosses, in general those who are engaged in something like that, "besides," neighing horses, mooing bulls, the noise of the surf, thunder and other things of the same kind. " As today we are far from such a statement of tasks before the guardians of the Fatherland!

It is known that people are inert and therefore in no hurry to catapult into a new civilization. Many resist this prejudice and dream of living beyond the traditions and circulars. They want to feel like free birds. Pogroms in England - the best evidence of this.

Plato reflects on how to provide a person with conditions for development, for happiness, but realizes that if a person is forcibly dragged to the mountain, to the sun, he will suffer and resent such violence, and when he sees the sunlight, he will be blinded by him and will not see anything of the promised truths. That is why liberation from darkness, comprehension of the good is not at all a simple and not generally accessible task requiring preliminary preparation. However, the people capable of this and the special school of upbringing that have become philosophers (and this is in the ideal state of Plato rulers) also find themselves in a relationship of obligation to those who remain blind to the truth: they, the philosophers, are required to take care of others and to stand guard over their interests.

Based on Plato, today you can analyze which political regime has proven its superiority. Ancient Greek thinkers - Socrates, Plato, Cynics, Stoics, Aristotle - experienced a hatred of tyranny. However, modern mob, captured by strong passions, a complex of recompense and violence literally craves autocracy.

Tyranny is based on violence, lawlessness, arbitrariness. When the tyrant feels that the people have aroused a dream about the "strong hand", he is able to unleash a war.

Aristotle's views are as aristocratic as Plato's. He believed that all people who work hard, seek food, shelter, are similar in their status to slaves and should be an appendage of the state. This division is inherent in nature itself, according to which some are free, others are slaves. In addition, this is true, for slaves, according to Aristotle, do not have reason. At the same time, the philosopher treats the masses as a normal phenomenon of political life, believes that the masses, the crowd, moreover, mass history accompany political change processes.

Thinkers of the Renaissance also tried to show the role of the crowd in politics, but mostly branded ignorant people, regardless of the class to which they belonged. N. Machiavelli wrote that the plebeians are strong in their mass and strong, but individually weak. The masses boldly and repeatedly challenge the decision of their sovereign, but as soon as they are under the immediate threat of punishment, they cease to trust and obey each other. Do not attach much importance to the fact that the people themselves are talking about their bad or good moods. Good moods can be supported, it's bad - to prevent. However, if discontent is generated by the loss of freedom or beloved sovereign, extreme measures will be needed to curb discontent. There is nothing more terrible than the unbridled masses deprived of their leader. We need monarchical power, which would curb the spoiled masses. In the treatment of Machiavelli, the masses are the source of strength, the viability of the state, its stability, and at the same time they are a breeding ground for distemper and disorder.

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