After studying this chapter, the student must:
• features of memory as a psychic reality;
• types of memory and classification grounds;
• tasks for the memory of animals and humans;
• The idea of memory as a process of recreating images of the past;
be able to
• Analyze the process of memorizing and reproducing past experience;
• representations of memory as a moment of activity and independent action;
But that in the future the previous lines
The poet did not repeat,
He must remember by heart
All that he forgot.
The better memory, the more you can forget.
With. E. Leah,
The concept of memory
This chapter is devoted to a concept that describes a psychic reality that is well known to all of us, often due to its absence at the right time. It's about memory. At first glance it seems that this concept is introduced into psychology as the name of a certain reality of a person's life - the ability to remember and repeat yesterday's path, the ability to recognize this person, although, perhaps, while forgetting his name, ability to maintain the ability to ride a bicycle, an episode of his life two years ago, the ability to remember his intentions and plans before implementing them.
Memory as a common property of matter
We know that the concept of memory is used not only in psychology. They talk about the memory of water and metals, information is recorded on magnetic tapes or various kinds of discs, scientists study the genetic and immunological memory of living beings, talk about the ability of the living to assimilate the rhythms of habitat changes, predict events based on past experience, on the formation and preservation of nervous stimuli models , about the innate skills to do something and to orient oneself, etc. And we, psychologists, talk about memory, but as a special mental process of memories of the past and a more general ability of animals and people to use their past experience in the management and regulation of today's behavior. This ability of animals and man to use his personal past experience in behavior that unfolds "here-and-now", and required the appeal of psychology to the concept of "memory."
You see that, like many other concepts of psychology, the concept of memory is introduced for two reasons: empirical self-observation with the experience of feelings I remember or forgot and as a theoretical construct (concept), explaining the real ability of animals and humans to use their past experience. Therefore, the appeal of some psychologists (for example, W. Nysser) to exclude the concept of memory as a theoretical construct (concept) of psychology and to study directly the process of using the subject's personal past experience.
But the use of past experience by living beings does not always mean that they have the ability of the psyche to preserve information about the past. The immunological system behaves as if it remembers what already happened to the body. We now know how this result is achieved, and although it is often described as a manifestation of memory, since the experience of the interaction of the organism with some agent is taken into account in a second meeting, the body's ability to produce the necessary substances, the benefit from which the organism received in previous contacts with harmful effects. Living beings are able to take into account the experience of their species through genetically fixed reactions, described as instincts, reflexes, tropisms to various changes in the environment (the effects of stimuli). They are also able to take into account seasonal changes in the weather (trees drop leaves to frosts), diurnal rhythms of changing the environment. Reproduction of living things can also be viewed as a manifestation of the biological memory of the species, when each organism carries within it the program of building a new organism of its kind.
Such a polysemy of the term memory is not accidental. Behind it is the general ability of living and nonliving bodies to preserve the results (traces) of interaction with the world, carrying in themselves some characteristics of interacting forces (information about them). These traces are not only used by some living beings to construct perceptual images (as already mentioned in the first chapters), but also remain in a transformed form, becoming in the future the basis for recreating images of past events on them, and also used in the regulation of today's behavior. But the image of memory does not coincide with the image of perception. He is both poorer and richer - something disappears in him, and something is added.
Saving the results of interaction between living and non-living objects is the basis for different types or types of memory, allocated by the everyday consciousness.
The results of interaction are manifested (exist) in physical traces, in products of chemical reactions, in changes in the state of physical bodies (metals, water, etc.); in evolutionary and immunological adaptations to the environment, in changes in the states of organisms, in biochemical and biophysical transformations of primary traces in the sense organs of animals and humans; in new motor skills acquired by subjects of behavior and new ways of behavior, in fixing knowledge about the necessary guidelines for the successful behavior of animals and humans, etc.
That is, as with reflection, we can distinguish:
1) physical memory, or the preservation of traces of interactions on a physical basis (natural interactions or organized by a person - for example, recording music on a disc);
2) biological memory as fixing the experience of species of living beings in genes (genetic memory), or fixing the experience of reactions to harmful substances attacking the body (immunological memory), or fixing information on the stimuli acting on the sense organs from the environment in the transformed tracks biophysical and biochemical processes of the brain - nerve models of stimuli);3) mental memory as the use by the individual individual of the personal past of experience in his current behavior, along with the use of the species memory for this subject, and for the person - the socio-historical generic memory.
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