Mental development of the child in the period of newborns
The central nervous system of a newborn is not completely formed. The main condition for its further maturation is getting impressions from the outside world, thanks to which the visual, auditory and other analyzers are trained. Immediately after birth, the child can distinguish salty, bitter, sweet taste and respond to sound stimuli. However, the most important moment in his mental development is the appearance of auditory and visual concentration. Auditory concentration occurs in 2-3 weeks. The child freezes and falls silent at a sharp sound, for example a slammed door. At the third or fourth week, he already responds to the voice of a person. It manifests itself as follows: it not only freezes, but also turns its head toward the source of sound. In the third or fifth week, visual appears. It happens like this: the child freezes and briefly detains a glance at the bright object that has fallen into his field of vision.
Thus, due to the development of auditory and visual concentration in the child, a basis for transition from separate isolated sensations to integral perception begins to be laid by 5-6 weeks. He can already perceive the subject not in parts, but as a whole, follow the look behind the moving object or turn the head behind the moving source of sound. On the stimulus, it reacts as follows: it freezes and focuses only on the sound source or object, all other reactions at the moment stop.
From the first hours of a child's life, adults are for him the main sources of sound and auditory signals. They look at the newborn, show him different things, talk to him, thus activating his orientation reactions.
When monitoring the birth and the first weeks of a child's life, the following results were obtained.
The child begins his life with a cry - a reaction to painful sensations when spreading the lungs. Then the cry becomes a manifestation of negative emotions. The newborn screams when there are unpleasant feelings associated with the dissatisfaction of needs for sleep, in food, warmth, crying is a reaction to wet diapers, etc. The cry is accompanied by mimic changes: wrinkling of face, reddening of the skin, in addition, the child begins to make uncoordinated movements.
When the physical needs are met, the newborn calms down and soon falls asleep. Thus, the satisfaction of physical needs relieves the child of negative emotions, but still does not cause positive. Positive emotions in the newborn begin to occur when receiving impressions, which provide him with adults. The first manifestation of positive emotions in a child's life is a smile.
In the first week of life on the face of the newborn during sleep, there are movements that look like a smile. Since this happens in a dream, the researchers considered them a spontaneous and reflex reduction of muscles. Also in the first week of life an unconscious smile appears on the child's face with high sounds and various sound stimuli, but by the fifth week of life a human voice does not cause a smile, the child needs visual stimuli, in particular, the look of a human face. Reaction to the image and voice of an adult is
as follows: the child has a braking of general movements, after 10 seconds an expressive smile appears on his face and disappears after 35 seconds. This is how communication with an adult occurs, and the positive emotions obtained from it are considered a manifestation of the child's first social need.Gradually, approximately to one month, the newborn develops a special emotional-motor reaction: at the sight of his mother's face, he stops looking at him, stretches out his hands to it, quickly moves his legs, makes joyful sounds and starts smiling. This reaction is called the revitalization complex. The appearance of the revitalization complex is a neoplasm of the given period, it is considered the completion of the newborn period and indicates the transition to infancy.
D. B. Elkonin wrote: "The smile on the child's face ... is the end of the newborn crisis." From this moment he starts an independent psychic life. Further mental development of the child is primarily the development of the means of his communication with adults .
M. I. Lisina believed that the revitalization complex testifies to the appearance of the child's need for communication with adults.
P. Spitz and FA Wolf showed in their studies that at the age of 2 to 5 months the child smiles at any person, and from 4-5 months the mother starts smiling at the sight of other familiar faces. Through a smile between the child and parents, a positive emotional contact is established, which leads to affection and a gentle, warm relationship.
The revitalization complex comes to the fore when an adult enters the field of view of the child, then other needs lose their significance. The child begins to smile and move, wanting to attract the attention of adults. Such a reaction to close people says that they are for the child not only a necessary condition for development, but also its source. It has also been established that frequent, benevolent communication between an adult and a child contributes to the development of a revitalization complex, and a rare and indifferent one - hinders, which can lead to a delay in the child's mental development.
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