MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEWBORN, THE BABY, Crisis...

MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEWBORN, BABY

Newborn crisis

The first year of a child's life can be divided into two periods: newborns and infancy. The neonatal period is the time interval when the child is physically separated from the mother, but physiologically related to it, and lasts from birth until the appearance of the "revitalization complex" (at 4-6 weeks). The period of infancy lasts from 4-6 weeks to one year.

With the crisis of newbornness, first of all, phenomena that occur directly in the process of birth and in the first minutes after birth are related.

The causes of the emergence of crisis phenomena are as follows:

1) physiological. The child, being born, is physically separated from the mother, which is already an injury, and in addition to this falls into completely different conditions (cold, air environment , bright illumination, the need to change power);

2) psychological. Separating from the mother, the child ceases to feel her warmth, which leads to feelings of insecurity and anxiety.

The psychic of a newborn child has a set of innate unconditioned reflexes that help him in his first hours of life.

These include respiratory, sucking, orienting (turn of the head to the source of light or sound) reflexes, protective reflexes - pupillary, squeezing and withdrawal of the limb, as well as atavistic reflexes - clinging reflex, reflexes of crawling and peredupannya. These last got to us from ancestors-animals, but, being not especially necessary, they soon disappear. The presence of unconditioned reflexes indicates the functional maturity of the newborn's central nervous system, but during the first year of life most of them die out. The reason for this is that these reflexes are controlled by subcortical structures, and as the brain matures, they give way to more complex behavioral responses controlled by the cerebral cortex.

The crisis of newborn is an intermediate period between the intrauterine and extrauterine way of life. This period is characterized by the fact that at this age

The child basically sleeps. Therefore, if there were no adults nearby, he could die after a while. Adults surround him with care and satisfy all his needs: in food, drink, warmth, communication, quiet sleep, care, hygiene, etc.

A child is considered not adapted to life, not only because he can not satisfy his needs, but also because he does not yet have any formed behavioral act. Watching him, you can see that even sucking a child has to be taught. He still has very imperfect thermoregulation, but the instinct of self-preservation is developed: taking an intrauterine position, he reduces the heat exchange area.

The period of newborn is considered the time of adaptation to new conditions of life: the time of wakefulness is gradually increasing; visual and auditory concentration develops; the ability to focus on visual and auditory signals (for details, see 6.2); the first associative and conditioned reflexes develop, for example, in the position of feeding. Sensory processes - vision, hearing, and touch, are developing, and it is much faster than the development of motor skills.

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