Metaphor for solving problems, Metaphor of politics...

Metaphor for Problem Solving

Any organization in its functioning faces many problems. It needs to work out, specify or redefine its own goals, as well as find ways to achieve these goals. Thus, activities in an organization can be presented as a set of actions to solve problems and training on their basis. However, it is important to take into account that people, when solving problems, have "limited rationality", i.e. seek to find not the best solution, but quite satisfying them, as G. March and G. Simon established in their 1958 studies. Strengthening this metaphor was the study of the cognitive and communicative aspects of decision-making processes in the organization.

Policy Metaphor

It would be naive to assume that all members of the organization have the same interests or that upon joining the organization each of them renounces individual interests in favor of common interests. Conflicts of interest are present everywhere, for example, between an employer and a wage worker about working conditions, between superiors and subordinates about control, marketing and sales, etc. This gave grounds for distinguishing between the so-called "big politics" implemented at the state level, and the "little politics" that permeates the daily life of organizations. Numerous studies have shown how personal and group interests influence the adoption of critical decisions in organizations. A political metaphor is extremely useful for the psychological study of power, influence and conflict resolution.

Metaphor of an organism

The organizational metaphor of the organization is largely opposed to the understanding of organization as a living biological organism, which is in a continuous process of metabolism with the environment. Receiving from the outside world materials (raw materials, components), energy (labor, capital) and information at the entrance, transforming all this into goods or services of greater value, and then exchanging them at the outlet in different sectors of the environment for what is required to enter , organizations, like other living systems, are striving for survival. The more complex the requirements of the external environment, the greater the internal differentiation of the open system into well-coordinated subsystems, which allows it to adequately respond to these requirements and adapt quickly to their changes. The most impressive use of a biologically-derived systematic approach to organizations was made possible by American psychologists R. Kahn and D. Katz in 1966. Based on the theory of roles, they showed how individual actions are organizationally related both as cycles of events taking place in the organization, creating its structure . The further development of the theory of systems led to an understanding of the organization not only as an open socio-technical system, but also brought to the organization's research the idea of ​​self-regulation, as well as positive and negative feedback, which either preserves the existing organizational structure or leads to organizational changes. An even later development of the system approach revealed serious difficulties in the practical implementation of rather abstract theoretical constructions, which led researchers, for example P. Senge, to the conclusion that artificial distribution in organizations of so-called systemic thinking is necessary. However, perhaps in the most pure form, the metaphor of the organism was used in the evolutionary and population-ecological approaches to the study of the organization of M. Hannan and J. Freeman, in which it is postulated that any organization is under pressure of selection from the outside world, and the curves of "fertility" and death separate organizations are interdependent and determined by population density in the corresponding ecological niche.

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