Methodological Issues In Research Household Violence Psychology Essay

A critical review of the methodology used in Hoyle, C Being a nosy bloody cow: honest and methodological issues in research home violence. The section of this article I am concentrating on talks about 'negotiating usage of research subject matter' and adapting strategy for a doctoral method of work. The chapter also talks about who be appropriate topics for the study and the correct method of getting information for the study. Overall this article talks about Hoyle's own experience from her thesis which was based on 'policing domestic violence Thames Valley (Hoyle, C. 1996) but her methods were 'denigrated by critics who weren't sympathetic with my findings'.

The types of methodology used by Hoyle in her article is a variety of 'qualitative and quantitative. . . scrutiny of standard documents. . . interviews. . . mobile phone cell phone calls' (Hoyle, C. 2000:397). This is also called triangulation 'different solutions to study the same sensation' (Hoyle, C. 2000:398). Triangulation entails 'Uses multiple observers, theoretical perspectives, resources of data, methodologies. . . methods of investigation' (research methods book) to obtain additional reliable results.

Qualitative data requires 'an method of documents that emphasis the role of the investigator. . . emphasises words rather than data' (research e book p716). The technique includes using interviews, studies, diaries or questionnaires to get results that are term based rather than numbers, information or statistics. The definition of quantitative data is 'emphasises quantification. . . and evaluation of data' (research book p717). Quantitative data focuses on numbers somewhat than words to get results for example, criminal offenses figures or figures.

The qualitative data that Hoyle uses are interviews, she interviews police officers and victims to 'in order to think about what the role of the criminal justice system is. . . with regards to domestic violence '(Hoyle, C. 2000:398). Hoyle once in a while interviewed the offender, the Crown Prosecution Service and the guardianship officer 'it is essential to talk to all those involved with disputes and their quality' (Hoyle, C. 2000:398). The quantitative data that can be used within the text are the scrutiny of established documents, although she doesn't go into fine detail on what they are they are more likely to be crime results for domestic violence.

Triangulation in Hoyle's article combines qualitative and quantitative data to get a more accurate consequence; however there are advantages and weaknesses for both methods. Qualitative data could be by using a review, questionnaire or interview to assemble opinions from an organization or individual but these can confirm time consuming and expensive for example, it's likely you have to travel to be able to carry out the interviews. Another weakness of qualitative data is that it is opinion rather than reality, Hoyle interviews police officers, victim's and offenders to get their opinion on the dispute that she attends however the sufferer may be influenced therefore the interviewer does not have any way of knowing whether it's the complete truth, this does mean the results may be unreliable as the response may be phony. Hoyle also interviewed police officers who responded to the occurrences to ensure that exact information was given relating to the victim's needs. Each set of data collected in an interview provides different perspectives of the event that produces further accounts with regards to the data that was already gathered (Fandf 1986 find ref later in hoyles article).

In using validity 'steps may be studied to ensure a way is reliable and/ or valid as such as testing for internal reliability (research methods reserve p173). In Hoyles research triangulation data

'does not give a straightforward check on a dependability and validity. . . discrete

data set provides a unique perspective and for that reason can be viewed as in

isolation from others, two (or even more) pieces of data on the same situation permits

one to explore the relationship of 'accounts' to what people are in reality observes

to be doing, in doing so generating a further account with regards to data already

gathered' (f and f from hoyles article).

Hoyles uses interviews to have the judgment of the sufferer; however we can not validate view as it might not exactly be completely true. It is possible to validate recognized documents for example, crime figures however in Hoyles article she will not disclose what they are then there is absolutely no way we can validate them without knowing specifically what they are.

Hoyle chose to use qualitative and quantitative data so that there is several solution to make the results more reliable, if one method looks at the opinion of the individuals engaged then the formal documents can back up the information found out from the interviews. She also decided these methods as it is good for repeatability; since Hoyle used the same methods again and again to perform the interview then it is possible that by the end she would have similar results. Hoyle also considered these methods as it is a 'rigorous and complete methodological approach for doctoral work' (Hoyle, C. 2000:395).

There are some dissimilarities that make using qualitative and quantitative data good or bad, the research finished with qualitative data shows the idea of view from the members instead of quantitative data which is shown from the researcher's perspective. I think it is better to show research from the individuals view as it gives the audience a clearer understanding into their world or perspectives for example, Karen Sharpe partially uses qualitative data to interview prostitutes on the street. The research shows the prostitutes and Sharpe's perspective whilst on the streets '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . offer' thus giving us a feel for how they feel focusing on the avenues and the trust included to approach Sharpe and answer the questions (reference to the Sharpe article). A durability of using quantitative data is that it's more structured than qualitative data, qualitative is usually unstructured or semi- structured as qualitative data is intended to provide the researcher a view of the world from the participants eyes. (Research reserve p498). Quantitative data is more worried about a group or individuals behaviour such as learning why people work as prostitutes and what abused they withstand on the streets, where as qualitative data is focused on the meaning of the activities.

Several authors have written contrasts about qualitative and quantitative data, such as Halfpenny 1979 (research book p407). The similarities of qualitative and quantitative data are both attempt to answer research questions although both models of data will vary but the overall goal is focused on 'answering questions about the type of social certainty (research publication p409). 'Hardy and Bryman (2004) have pointed out that. . . there. . . are distinctions between qualitative and quantitative research. . . should be recognized that we now have similarities too' (research e book p409). Both qualitative and quantitative data are focused on variation, experts 'seek to uncover and then stand for the variance that they uncover' (research booklet p409). This implies research workers explore how people will vary and their link with variance. Another similarity is the fact that the research method used really needs appropriate questions to ask the subject, research workers have to ensure that they identify questions and choose methods and data evaluation that are appropriate with the questions (research e book p410). Both of qualitative and quantitative data targets data decrease as researchers have a tendency to collect a lot of data. In case a researcher reduces the quantity of data then it is much easier to make sense of everything. In quantitative data researchers reduce data by statistical examination. In qualitative data analysts 'develop concepts out of. . . wealthy data' (research book p409).

The ethical issues that come from using qualitative methodology such as interviews are that Hoyle needed to be taken to the victim's house by the authorities officer working as she acquired to take into account her personal safe practices, the officer was not required to participate in the interview except when the offender remained inside your home following the dispute. However using the authorities officer to secure gain access to looks like the victim possessed no choice but to be interviewed by Hoyle, before performing the interview Hoyle got to make certain that the sufferer knew that they had to rights whether to be interviewed or not. Consent needed to be given for the interviews and Hoyle were required to tell them information such as who she was, what the research was about, how it was funded and how the data would eventually be used. She also got to be sure they remained anonymous to protect the level of privacy of individuals involved, this was important as to not cause more stress to the individuals and persuade these to start to her given that they couldn't be determined. Another concern was that with the offender still inside your home the victim could be dissuade from being totally truthful with Hoyle so individual interview schedules were set up and the offender was taken to the police stop for the interview. A significant ethical concern was the actual fact that Hoyle was deceitful to the perpetrator of the dispute; she asked the offender to leave her by themselves with the victim and told them that their spouse would be asked the same questions as them about 'open public perception of police handling disputes'. A number of the questions that Hoyle asked were the same as the offenders however, many weren't. 'Consented to interviews with officials without totally understanding the reason why behind the interviews' (Hoyle, C. 2000:401) Hoyle essentially lied to the offender to gain the information she needed, if she hadn't then there is a chance that the sufferer could have been dishonest.

Other issues that are participating with this type of research are access, Hoyle would of have to of been through the police first and would of needed police escort to the dispute. Also to get to the victims she would have needed access from the authorities and from the offender as Hoyle were required to ask the offender for agreement to ask the victim questions. Another concern could have been trust, to talk to the patients Hoyle of needed a degree of trust before she could easily get them to answer the questions although that they had the choice of backing out and not engaging if they wished. She would also need to have the trust of the offender in order that they would let the victim by themselves with her.

Overall I think that using both quantitative and qualitative data alongside one another is better as it produces more reliable information and results. Using qualitative data means that people get to start to see the research from the point of view from the individual or group to provide us a clearer view of their life, however it is frustrating as you'll have to earn their trust enough that you can ask questions and carry out the research. Qualitative data is also useful as it shows the participant in their natural settings 'most qualitative researchers reveal a desire for discovering through the eye of the participant' (research publication p412) so they don't really change their behaviour too much therefore that they are comfortable in their environment. Quantitative data is distanced from the study subject matter, so we don't get a feel for the research much like qualitative data as the researcher is near the subject. An advantage of using quantitative data is that it could be proven as it is simple fact where qualitative data is view, as having research that vehicle be verified pays to.

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