METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
SPECIFICITY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE. THE MAIN PROBLEM
Psychological cognition affects all aspects of human life in the form of a process hidden from the self-consciousness, as it is veiled by the material forms of joint activity on which our attention is focused, which predetermines the conscious perception of each other as a means of achieving their and common goals of life. As a result, there appears to be an absence or insignificance of human psychology as a natural attribute of the individual. In fact, human psychology is woven into the fabric of social life of people as a human factor predetermining successes and achievements of joint activity. Only the effect of this factor is obviously not for everyone, especially those who are not being noticed by technical and technological improvements are trying to reduce its influence in industrial production and at the same time in the humanitarian spheres of society. There arises a paradoxical situation when such a person refuses to people, and, consequently, to himself in recognizing the psychology of man as an obligatory attribute of Homo sapiens sapiens, without which it is impossible to imagine any sphere of human existence. The position of ignoring or reducing the influence of human psychology on the life of the carrier of psychology threatens humanity with virtual suicide and the transformation of people into executors of technocratic functions and economic services. The rejection of the psychology of man as a vital subject of social interaction and psychological cognition leads to the devaluation of human life as the main value of social being. Unfortunately, these processes are typical for any civilization, since civilization is characterized by technologicality and the predominance of a mechanistic relation to the subjective and subjective being of man. Nevertheless, the more we ignore the psychological factors in the life of a person, the more they remind themselves of themselves, because behind each act in this world there is a person with his unique psychology. In this regard, the problem of cognition of human psychology does not lose relevance for many millennia. The urgency of knowing human psychology is due not only to the fact that psychological factors affect the life of a person, groups, communities and whole civilizations, but also by the fact that psychological cognition, approaching the knowledge of human psychology, still does not reach the ultimate goal and can not exist on the Today means to assert that human psychology is a mystery solved. Moreover, the more scientific information about its subject is in the arsenal of scientific psychology, the more questions and unresolved problems arise for scientific psychological cognition. The difficulties of psychological cognition lie, first of all, in the subject of psychology, or rather in its ideality, and, therefore, in the inaccessibility of the methods of research that are usual for science.
The obscurity of human psychology in the inner content of our psychic organization creates difficulties in the psychological cognition of this hidden from the direct observation of the essence, although in ordinary consciousness it seems to us that we see each other through and through, we judge boldly the psychological merits and demerits of each other in outward manifestations . This indicates that the psychology of man as an inner object is objectified to us in the everyday knowledge of each other in forms accessible to observation. Therefore, the psychological cognition of a person is a process of perception and interpretation (interpretation) of objectified forms of manifestation of the psychological content of a person. They include appearance, bodily movements, actions, behavior, activities, and all products.
The value of a person as a partner in a vital interaction is determined by his psychological qualities. They are viewed as opportunities to satisfy our everyday needs in another person. Therefore, the process of knowing another person is psychological in contrast to the knowledge of other objects of the material world. The peculiarity of psychological cognition is that as a result of the mutual perception of appearance (physical reality), subjects of knowledge judge the properties of a person who are not given to us in sensations as material qualities, but are supposed to be available as an ideal entity. Such mediation is possible at the expense of psychological reflection as an ideal process proceeding in the inner plane of human consciousness. In this case, there is no direct contact with the psychological reality of another person. It is hidden behind the shell of the external appearance, in which we find signs of the psychological qualities of the partner.
The appearance in this process is the bearer of the signs of the psychological content of the personality and as a physical (material) object is interpreted in the psychological cognition of man by man as a form of manifestation of the inner (ideal) properties of the personality.
The subject of psychological cognition is the psychological qualities of the human psychological organization , which he manifests in the social interaction of people through appearance , actions, behavior and activities. They are objects of psychological knowledge of man by man. External appearance, including expression and bodily movements, anatomical structure, racial and ethnic features, cosmetics, clothing and other ways of registration, is given much attention in the processes of cognition and social interaction. Elements and components of the external appearance are subjected to psychological interpretation as signs of typical and individual properties of the personality.
In the process of interpretation, the values of reflected features of material forms of human manifestation are reformulated into representations of its qualities as opportunities for cooperation in the role of a partner in joint life activity. There is an original change in the values of the material sign in the psychological quality. For example, the anatomical given - high forehead - turns into a psychological given "intelligent man". This points to the problem of the relationship between appearance and personality in the psychological cognition of man.
Studies of the socio-psychological interpretation of the personality according to the external appearance constantly indicate the relationship between the psychological and the physical as internal and external in a person. However, ascertaining this relationship, scientific knowledge is still unable to explain its origin and to trace it in fairly convincing correlations.
So, the specificity of a person's psychological cognition lies in the direction of the cognitive process on the psychological qualities of a person as an attribute of his personality , acting as a subject of social interaction. In this cognition, the external manifestations of a person in behavior, activity and physical appearance are interpreted as psychological qualities of the individual, which are the main objective content of ordinary mutual understanding of people.
Nevertheless, everyday psychological cognition differs from a scientific one on a number of criteria:
1. Ordinary psychological cognition is spontaneous and relies on unstructured experience.
2. Common knowledge is syncretic, and conclusions about the connection between manifestations of mental and psychological characteristics often do not obey the laws of logic.
3. In the arsenal of methodical means of ordinary knowledge, only observation and self-observation.
4. The determination of a person's psychology can be associated with random phenomena (birth date, eye color, combination of letters of a name, etc.). Scientific psychological knowledge is based on theory, scientific logic, a wide range of methodical tools. It is structured, evidentiary and verifiable/falsifiable. At the center of scientific knowledge there is always a method. The method is a theoretically grounded, consistent way of obtaining new knowledge.
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