METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
The answer to this question is not so obvious, as it may seem at first glance. It is with him to begin the methodological analysis of psychological science.
The word "psychology", on the one hand, is used to denote the characteristics of a person that he manifests when interacting with other people, with nature and other objects of the external world, thereby revealing his own specific qualities (psychological identity).
On the other hand, this word denotes the science of psychology, which studies human psychology as a phenomenon (psychology studies psychology). This tautological curiosity needs to be clarified.
In the first case, the concept of "psychology" It is used as an ontological category of science, which designates psychology as an object of knowledge. In the second - as a category of epistemological, pointing to science, which studies psychology as a phenomenon. Psychology as a science studies psychology as a phenomenon.
In this double-digit all the time you have to understand when determining the initial methodological principles of scientific and psychological cognition. The undifferentiated use of these two senses in scientific psychology arises from the introduction of the concept of "psyche" to denote the subject of psychological science. This concept ousted the ontological meaning of the concept of "psychology" from the epistemology of psychological science.
So, it is necessary to understand psychology as a science and in psychology as a phenomenon of human existence.
Psychology as a science
Psychology in the System of Sciences
Determining the place of psychology in the system of sciences is possible through solving the problem of classification of sciences, which contains an answer to the question of the specifics of the subject content of private sciences. Classification assumes a differential synthesis of objects on such grounds, which unite them according to one feature, but at the same time allow them to be divided into groups according to other characteristics. The key point of this problem lies in the contradictory similarities and differences in the characteristics of objects of cognition. Science, first of all, differentiates nature, man, society and the objective world created by people. Hence
and the classification of sciences in the natural (science of nature), humanitarian (human sciences), social (science about society), technical (science of man-made objects). These four classes of sciences unite (synthesize) and simultaneously distinguish (differentiate) them according to their belonging to the objects of cognition. However, by origin and material basis of the properties of these objects, they can be considered as natural , which does not allow to be completely sure of their fundamental differences. For example, can natural sciences be considered humanitarian when they study a person? If a person studies all sciences, can we, for example, consider physics, chemistry and biology as humanities?
An integral picture of these basic objects of knowledge is possible only on the basis of the synthesis of knowledge of different sciences about them. However, each of the sciences is differentiated in the knowledge of these objects according to specific properties, which is the subject content of the particular sciences. As a result of such differentiation, objects are split into elements without analyzing their connections with each other, which leads to the disintegration of complete representations about the integral objects of vital interaction. Return to the whole picture of the integral objects of life-supporting interaction is possible through the logic of the subject synthesis of private sciences. But for this it is necessary to determine the differentiation of the specific properties of the object in the epistemology of the particular sciences. The basis for the differentiation of such properties is the elements of the internal structure of the object that arise from the functional interaction of the given object with the external and internal environment. Such interaction becomes a source of natural properties of the object. For example, anatomical, biochemical, mental and other human properties. Man as an object of nature is a synthesis of all its properties, and therefore it is in him that one must seek the basis for the differentiation of particular sciences, including psychological ones.
For psychology, the definition of her status as one of the "primitive" sciences, whose subject is born of nature. In this sense, psychology is self-sufficient and parity with other original spiders (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology). At the same time, for the complete classification of all private sciences, the following tasks are designated:
1) search for an object, which would contain the substantive properties of all sciences - the object of synthesizing all the properties of nature;
2) search for objects of object intersections of psychological science with other sciences and determination of the grounds for their differentiation and integration.
The first problem is solved by psychology quite easily.
The object synthesizing all the properties of nature, which contains the objective properties of all sciences, is man.
Accordingly, man as an integral object of nature can be considered as the basis for the classification of sciences.
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