Methods for activating the cognitive activity of students and students
A student in a psychology class can be active or passive. It depends on many factors. If he has not slept or is tired, the level of his activity will be low. At the same time, the cognitive activity of students in the classroom can be more or less active depending on the teaching methods used by the teacher. Explanatory-illustrative and reproductive methods more than others predispose to passivity in the study of educational material, but even they can, with a certain technique, activate the process of cognition.
There are three levels of activity:
1) activity of reproduction, characterized by the desire of the student to understand, remember, reproduce knowledge, master the ways of using the pattern;
2) the activity of interpretation, characterized by the desire of the learner to comprehend the meaning of the studied, to establish connections, to master the ways of applying knowledge in changed conditions;
3) creative activity, characterized by the student's desire for theoretical understanding of knowledge, independent search for solutions to problems, intensive manifestation of cognitive interests.
All these levels are necessary for the successful study of certain knowledge and skills in psychology. Different methods can stimulate different types of activity or all at once.
The degree of activity of students and students in the process of mastering knowledge is an important factor for successful learning. From this point of view, it is important to pay attention to the use of active methods in the teaching of psychology. The method of training can be effective when it is built on methods and techniques that activate the activity of the trainee, first of all, the thinking. The more active the cognitive activity of the learner, the higher the effectiveness of learning. Active methods of training are understood to mean those who implement the installation for high activity of the subject in the learning process, in contrast to the so-called traditional approaches, where the student plays a much more passive role. However, methods can not be regarded as passive or active in themselves. Active nature is given to them by a special organization of the cognitive activity of students and students. Teaching methods obviously differ in the role that the activity of students is assigned to.
Explanatory and illustrative teaching is that the teacher communicates ready information, and students (students) perceive it, comprehend and remember it. This is a very time-saving way of transmitting information. However, when using it, the skills to use the acquired knowledge are not formed. This method is quite typical for lecturing, when the teacher first expounds the theory, formulates the concept, and then gives illustrations or examples of their use for the psychological analysis of everyday life reality or empirical research. When choosing the methods of explaining psychological knowledge, it is important for the teacher to foresee how new knowledge will be built into the system of past experience and knowledge of students in psychology or other subjects. Useful methods of such integration can be an analogy, a comparison with other phenomena and concepts already known to the student.
Reproductive education is that the teacher asks the student (student) to repeat a certain learning activity. The student performs the actions on the model set by the teacher, and thus learns the skills. This method is usually used in seminars and practical classes in psychology.
Programmed learning is the guided learning of the learning material, carried out according to a specially designed step-by-step tutorial. It is implemented with the help of training devices (for example, computers) or programmed textbooks. The methods of programmed instruction presuppose the reorganization of traditional teaching by clarifying and operationalizing goals, tasks, methods of solution, forms of encouragement and control with regard to the subject content of knowledge.
The simplest kind of training programs are linear, in which the student is consistently offered a small block of educational information in a certain logical sequence. Each block is completed by a control task, most often a test character with a choice of alternative answers. If the student makes a mistake in the test task, the program suggests to return to the repetition of the material, after which the control task is again offered. Only after correct execution of the last student can proceed to study the next piece of information.
In the case of a branched program, the student in the case of an incorrect response to the test task is given the necessary additional information until he can give the correct answer and go to a new batch of material.
There are also adaptive programs that select the level of complexity of the new teaching material, change it as you master it. Each subsequent step of the diagnostic takes into account the result of the previous one. Such programs can only be implemented using a computer.
The capabilities of modern computers expand the prospects of programmed learning. They allow individualization of training. In psychology, however, there are no such systems that have become widespread.
Problem training is that the teacher poses a problem for students (students) and then shows the way to solve it. This is, in effect, the problematic nature of the presentation of the material by the teacher. In another case, the answer to the posed problem, analysis of the problem situation and the search for appropriate funds are carried out by the students themselves in the process of individual or group training under the guidance of the teacher. With problem education, knowledge is not communicated in ready-made form, but is acquired in the process of resolving problem situations. Thus, students see examples of scientific solutions to problems, examples of the logic of scientific thinking, as well as ways to apply psychological knowledge in practice.
Fig. 6.15. The figure shows the problem on the left (1), and on the right (2) - its solution
The problem situation is a key element of such training, which consists in the realization that it is impossible to solve the problem with the available tools (knowledge and tools) (see Figure 6.15). The thought process begins with it. When reading lectures, the problem method is implemented as follows. The teacher first describes the fact, the problematic experimental, psychotherapeutic or life situation, and then gives them a theoretical generalization in the form of a concept, shows how psychological knowledge can help explain or solve the problem. The use of problem situations will give a significant motivational effect in the study of psychology. Before posing new knowledge, the teacher poses a certain problem or problematic issue. In the process of discussing and solving this problem, the teacher offers (or the students themselves) psychological knowledge as a means of solution. In all cases, when it is possible to find such problems, the learning process becomes fascinating and the study of psychology is recognized as practically useful. Such a way of teaching psychology to future teachers through analysis of pedagogical situations and mistakes, through "the production of psychological knowledge" and his experience is offered, in particular, by EA Klimov.
Special interest of teachers and students in recent years is caused by interactive training. The process of mastering knowledge occurs here through the organization of interaction and relations between students. Methods of interactive learning include collective discussions, role-playing games, methods of collective problem solving. V. Ya. Liaudis gives interesting examples and scenarios of using active methods in teaching psychology, accumulated in her experience with students.
In principle, any training session can be made active if you use active methods or technologies of active learning. Such technologies presuppose the organization of an educational process, in which it is impossible to non-participation in the cognitive process. Each student either has a specific role assignment in which he must report, or on his performance depends on the quality of the group's cognitive task.
The use of certain techniques to activate and improve the effectiveness of training and is the features of different active methods. These include:
- problem lecture, lecture together (lecture by two teachers m and);
- group work (work in pairs or small groups);
- a business game - an imitation of situations modeling professional activity by playing according to specified rules
- brainstorming - activation of thought processes by joint search for the solution of a difficult problem;
- a method for analyzing specific situations, situational problems;
- role-playing game;
- Psycho-technical game and training.
Partially search training is often called a heuristic. Its essence lies in the fact that the teacher divides the educational problem into separate tasks, and students (students) take steps to find their solutions. The solution of each task occurs independently, however the planning of the whole decision process is carried out by the teacher. This method is used in practical exercises, when students learn to formulate an instruction to the subject, organize interaction with him, register, process and interpret the empirical data. The method in question is used for teaching students in term papers at junior and middle courses.
Research training involves the creative application of knowledge by students. At the same time, they develop the experience of independent scientific research work. This method of teaching is used when students perform course and diploma work.
For the organization and planning of vocational training, the sign-context learning model is of interest,
proposed by A. A. Verbitsky. It identifies three basic forms of learning activities that determine the types of cognitive activity that students are included in.
1. Academic activities of academic type, performing primarily informational function. The training model is semiotic; is focused on teaching texts, tasks and tasks.
2. Quasi-professional activity is a business game. It recreates the subject and social content of the professional work of a specialist. The training model is imitative; is focused on models of professional situations.
3. Educational and professional activities, where the student performs the functions of a specialist. At this stage, there is a transformation of educational activity into a professional one. The training model is social; is oriented to problem situations.
It seems that this approach allows differentiating forms of education at different levels of vocational training and, accordingly, stimulating different types of cognitive activity of students.
In recent years, new pedagogical technologies are being actively introduced into pedagogical practice, such as training in cooperation, project methods, telecommunication systems. They may be of interest for the development of appropriate methods of studying psychology.
Different types of activity in the psychology class should be aimed at consolidating the studied material. This is achieved by repeating or performing practical tasks using the material studied. For repetition, recognition can be used when the teacher repeats several times a thought, thesis, a definition. The effectiveness of such a repetition, as a rule, is small, as students remain in a passive role.
The best way to repeat is various kinds of playback: simple playback, summary repetition, systematic repetition. And for the development of thinking and the ability to understand the meaning of information contained in the story of the teacher or in the text of the book, the latter two types of repetition matter more. The summary repetition presupposes a brief summary of the main theses (thoughts) of the learned or read teaching material. It allows you to learn to separate the main from the secondary and generalize the material studied. Systematizing repetition is aimed at connecting together and into a certain system of previously studied disparate information. It gives the possibility of developing a mental synthesis operation. A good way of systematizing the consolidation can be the compilation of tables and diagrams. You should remember the correct distribution of the recurrence over time and its timeliness.
Survey of students in the lesson can serve both the purposes of controlling the mastery of their knowledge, and the goals of securing the latter. The usual form for the school is a detailed oral answer, when one student answers at the board, and the others listen. In this case, questions are raised that require a fairly large volume of educational material. Another type of interview is a front-line oral or written survey of a group of students. In this case, the questions are more specific, requiring a relatively brief answer.
In addition to reproductive fixation of the studied material, it is useful to use its creative fixation. For this, practical tasks of various types can be proposed, for example, psychological analysis of works of fiction, the solution of psychological problems. Particularly fascinating are the game methods of assimilation and consolidation of psychological skills, in particular, intellectual and role-playing games. The educational work of pupils and students in small groups is increasingly used.
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