Methods of descriptive psychology (subjective)
Descriptive psychology traditionally uses the following methods: introspection, self-report, included observation, empathic listening, identification, conversation as dialogue, biographical method, intuition, interpretation of the inner world of another person, hermeneutics.
Introspection, or introspection, is a scrutiny into the internal processes of consciousness, the phenomena of psychic life, mental experiences. Correctly applying this method, analyzing its results, it is possible to obtain valuable psychological information that reveals the internal causes of psychological problems. However, when working by the method of self-observation, it is necessary to take into account the individual and personal characteristics of the observer, which often makes it difficult or even impossible to generalize the results obtained.
The method of self-report is a verbal or written report on the results of self-observation, a description of one's own actions, experiences.
Self-reports often appear in the form of letters, autobiographies, confessions, diaries. The self-report is characterized by errors, one of which is the author's inclination to present himself to others in the most favorable light possible. However, this desire in itself is interesting from a psychological point of view, since it shows what is most valued by the author of the self-report in his presentation to others. Most letters, autobiographies, confessions, diaries tend to expose the most intimate experiences and thoughts of their authors, describe the internal motives of actions in real life situations.
The included observation is an observation from the inside, in which the observer actually participates in the experiment, group discussion, etc.
The empathic hearing is based on the person's ability to understand the companion and empathize with him. The researcher experiences the same emotional states that the interlocutor experiences, through identifying himself with it.
Identification - a person's ability to mentally put himself in the place of another, as if to incarnate into another person. Unlike empathy, identification uses intelligent, logical operations.
Dialogue conversation, unlike a classic interview, is based on the principles of equal and equal-communication, in which the partner in communication is not perceived as the studied object, and his knowledge is considered only through understanding.
In a conversation as a dialogue, the research task is not the main one, but acts alongside the correctional, pedagogical and other goals.
The biographical method is based on the study of human psychology in the context of its history, through a description of its biography.
Intuition is defined as knowledge that arises without comprehension of the ways and conditions of its reception. Describe the ways and ways of intuitive comprehension of another person is not possible by virtue of the very nature of intuition. However, in psychology it is established that intuitive understanding becomes possible if a person has great practical experience in a certain field of activity. An intuitive understanding of the inner world of another person is more developed in those who professionally work with people.
The interpretation of the inner world of man is based on the mechanism of analogy, which uses a variety of information about the external behavior of the observed: actions, actions, facial expressions, gestures, emotional manifestations, etc.Hermeneutics is the art of interpretation and the theory of the use of various kinds of texts - literary, religious, historical, scientific, etc. The analogy of hermeneutics in objective psychology is the method of analyzing the products of activity.
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