Content and organization of developmental and corrective work

The developing work of the psychologist is conducted in groups and individually. Group work includes trainings, psychological games, and individual consultations -

Working with children is different from working with adults. For preschool children, due to inadequate development of their reflection, consultations are meaningless, therefore, work with them is conducted in a playful form. Since adolescence, it is already possible to conduct consultations, and when working with adults it is one of the main activities of a psychologist.

Modern psychology offers the psychologist various methodical and contentful approaches to conducting corrective and developing work with people, both with children and adults. Development requires an intellectual sphere, attention, memory, imagination, behavioral aspects, personal, emotional problems, etc.

Abilities, psychological skills, mental neoplasms do not appear on their own. They arise, develop, are formed only in the event that a special environment, a special system of relations between people is created, and this environment and the system of relations form desire, need, readiness. These qualities and processes acquire value only in systems of relations with the world, other people, by oneself. Accordingly, problems in learning, communication, psychological development arise in a person when he was not created conditions in which he could develop certain qualities, or if in the future these qualities were unclaimed. Such a inferiority conditions can consist both in their low motivating potential, and in emotional unattractiveness or in the discrepancy with the intellectual capabilities of a person at a particular moment of development.

Speaking about the correctional work of a psychologist with a schoolboy, it should be borne in mind that this work does not directly "correct" mental qualities, but only creates the conditions for this.

The psychologist, in the opinion of GA Tsukerman, "... does not form individual abilities, but those interpsychic spaces, through which the child becomes capable of new actions" (cited in: Bityanova, M.R., M., 2000). In other words, the psychologist creates or recreates conditions in which new opportunities, desired psychological skills or processes can be formed and become necessary to the child, significant from the point of view of building adequate relations with the world and other people.

The conditions of correctional and developmental work can not be reduced to training, dressing certain components of the human mental world. They should include all the necessary elements of a full-fledged formative environment: emotional, reflexive, motivational, meaning-forming, etc.

The conditions created in psychocorrectional and development work are the conditions for the formation of the need for new knowledge, the possibility of acquiring it and realizing it in activities and communication.

There are two areas of developmental work: 1) actually developing, aimed at all schoolchildren, and 2) psychocorrectional, focused on eliminating the problems of learning and personal development, identified in specific students.

The development of the content and organization of developing and psycho-corrective work with schoolchildren is carried out within the framework of three working principles.

1. The content of developmental and psychocorrectional work must first of all correspond to those components of the psychological and pedagogical status of schoolchildren, the formation and full-fledged development of which at the given age stage is most relevant.

2. The content of correctional work must first of all correspond to those components of the student's psychological and pedagogical status, the level of development and content of which does not agree with psychological, pedagogical and age requirements.

3. Developmental and psychocorrectional work is organized primarily on the basis of psychodiagnostic minimums.

The realization of the first principle that allows a psychologist to identify priority areas of work with schoolchildren in different parallels is based, on the one hand, on the knowledge of the psychological patterns of development of the psyche at a given age stage, and on the other hand, on the content of the schoolchildren's psychological-pedagogical chart . So,

At the stage of adaptation in the initial link, it is advisable to carry out developing work in the main cognitive content, as well as activities that promote the development of arbitrary regulation of the emotional and behavioral spheres. In the transition from the primary to the middle link, cognitive development remains important, but the work is leading to the formation of a new social and personal position of the schoolchild in terms of learning, relationships with peers and adults. In adolescence, the socio-psychological developmental activity, the development of effective communication skills become relevant. At this stage, it is important to work with the emotional-volitional sphere of the student: the formation of the skills of emotional and behavioral self-regulation, increasing self-confidence, the development of the need for self-education. In work with high school students, the most significant is the work in the personality-oriented direction.

When organizing work in the chosen direction, the psychologist should use the system of psychological and pedagogical requirements and determine the content of the work. For example, first-graders need to first of all create the ability to work according to the pattern and rule, set ^! adults, focus on the entire system of proposed conditions, develop intellectual skills of generalization, comparison, finding the main feature, etc. In the course of exercises and tasks that require the student to concentrate attention and control behavior, regulatory skills are formed.

This working principle can greatly facilitate the process of preparing a psychologist for some form of developing work and make it more meaningful. Each exercise, derived from any development, can be evaluated from the point of view of its importance and expediency, depending on the system of psychological and pedagogical requirements. Next, the principles of content development work in the school, the implementation of which requires the following sequence:

1) highlight important parameters of psychological and pedagogical status;

2) an analysis of the requirements for the content of these parameters at this stage of schooling;

3) development and selection of methodical techniques that can be used in developing work and a description of the requirements for them;

4) the selection of specific exercises, corresponding to the described requirements.

Below is an example of the content of the development work in the primary school. In Table. 9 shows the parameters of the psychological and pedagogical map of the first-grader who are most important in developing work, as well as the corresponding psychological and pedagogical requirements and requirements for the content of developing techniques and exercises.

What has been said above also applies to psychological correction-developing work. The only difference is that in this case the psychologist, basing himself on the second working principle, makes up the content of the activities with the child, proceeding from those parameters of the status in which such problems as the lack of certain processes and skills, inadequate assimilation of the forms and methods of educational activity, or communication, inefficient use of the individual characteristics of this child.

Adherence to this principle does not mean that work should go only in one direction and only a certain parameter is subject to adjustment: it is of a holistic nature and is oriented towards the development of the personality and its mental world as a whole. Correction work with schoolchildren is very difficult to algorithmize, i.e. to offer ready-made programs for solving certain problems. All psychologically unfavorable variants of development are very different, therefore it is impossible to develop a corrective program suitable for everyone (in contrast to the general development program). In each case, the psychologist must solve an independent analytical problem: what kind of problems associated with the psychological and pedagogical status exist for schoolchildren of this parallel; with whom you can work in large groups, and with whom - in small, two or three people, or only individually; how to fill the work with them, taking into account the peculiarities of their status, etc.

To simplify this task, an algorithm for constructing corrective work is given below.

The first stage. Determining the essence of the problem from the point of view of the affected parameters of the status and the nature of the difficulties themselves (unformed, assimilated inadequate ways and techniques, failure to use individual characteristics).

The second stage. Development of ideas about the expected results of correctional work (tasks).

Table 9

Psychological requirements for the content of developmental and psychocorrectional work in primary school


Psychological -



Psychological and pedagogical requirements for learning, behavior and communication first-grader

Psychological requirements for the content of an evolving program

The cognitive sphere

Arbitrary mental processes

1. High level of activity, independence in learning activity.

2. Ability to independently plan, implement and monitor the result of certain training activities.

3. Performing educational activities on the model and the plan established by the adult.

4. Concentrating and maintaining attention on the learning task.

5. Having your own efforts to overcome difficulties in solving problems

Exercises and techniques that require:

1) Clear adherence to a set of rules and conditions: "Forbidden Movement", "Transitions", "Path", "Who flies?" and so on;

2) Restrictions on involuntary speech and motor activity: "What is audible?", "Listen and execute", "Repeat after me";

3) a short but strong concentration on a specific object: "Minute", "Listening to Silence", "Invisible Words", "Account by Commands" and others;

4) performing the function of the presenter (any exercises suggesting the presence of such a role);

5) changes in already known conditions, the invention of new rules and control over their execution (any favorite games);

6) intergroup competition requiring intra-group rallying and taking personal responsibility for the group result: "Account by command", "Joint drawing" and others;

Continuation of Table. 9


Psychological -



Psychological and pedagogical requirements for learning, behavior and communication first-grader

Psychological requirements for the content of an evolving program

Thinking development

1. A high level of development of visual-figurative thinking: the isolation of essential properties and relations of objects of the surrounding world; use of diagrams and schematic images; ability to generalize (at the level of specific objects).

2. The initial level of development of logical thinking: the ability to inferences and conclusions based on available data

7) finding or creating objects with certain properties: "End the word", "Transitions", "Who is who?" What is what? and others;

8) establishing the type of connection between the proposed objects: similarity, opposite, gender-type and others: "End the sentence", "Establishment of relations", "Fourth extra" and others;

9) establishing cause-effect relationships: "Consecutive pictures", "Deduction", "Continue row" and others;

The formation of the most important training activities

1. Ability to allocate a learning task and turn it into a goal of activity.

2. Formation of the internal plan of mental actions.

3. Ability to perform tasks for an adult

10) independent invention of assignments for the leader or other children;

11) the ability to think out, finish, build something in the mind: "The Fly", "Breadcrumbs", "Internal Cartoon" and others;

Speech development

1. Understanding the meaning of text or simple concepts.

2. The use of speech as a tool of thinking (possession of complex structures in oral speech)

12) the ability to continue the story started by the leader or other children;

13) the ability to come up with an association for a proposed word or to represent it;

14) the ability to come up with and set out another instruction for a particular task or exercise;

Continuation of Table. 9


Psychological -



Psychological and pedagogical requirements for learning, behavior and communication first-grader

Psychological requirements for the content of an evolving program

Development of fine motor skills

Ability to complex motor activity in learning to write and draw

15) Ability to pass labyrinths and draw patterns;

16) the ability to assemble structures from small parts;

17) the ability to construct fragile structures, etc.

Features of behavior and communication of schoolchildren

Interactions with peers

Possession of the methods and skills of effective interpersonal communication with peers: the establishment of friendly relations, readiness for collective forms of activity, the ability to independently resolve conflicts peacefully

Use of games, group or pair exercises, assuming:

1) The organization of intra-group cooperation and responsibility distribution: "Joint drawing", "Path", "Letter", "Scout" and others;

2) the acceptance by children of various role obligations: performing, leadership, controlling, etc., for example, "Scouts", "Needle and thread", story role-playing games;

3) experiencing common feelings of success and failure;

Interaction with Educators

Establishing adequate role relationships with teachers in and outside of classes. Respect for the teacher

4) different role relationships with adults: the position of the slave, the leader, the supervisor;

5) Adoption of assistance and assistance to an adult;

6) experiencing common feelings;

End of the table. 9


Psychological -



Psychological and pedagogical requirements for learning, behavior and communication first-grader

Psychological requirements for the content of an evolving program

Observance of social and ethical norms

Adoption and observance of class and school social and ethical norms

7) the development and mandatory implementation of certain game standards of behavior and interaction;

8) control over the implementation of certain rules by other group members, including adults,

9) Living different situations in conditions of compliance and non-compliance with the required norms: "School of bullies", "City of liars" and others;



Arbitrary regulation of behavior and natural motor activity in learning situations and in extracurricular interaction with peers and adults. Restraining involuntary emotions and desires

10) restriction of speech and physical activity;

11) performing the role of master or main in a game situation;

12) the development and strict implementation of certain rules for the existence of the group: cleaning and preparing the premises, preparing the necessary materials for work, etc.

13) encouragement of activity, respect for opinions and decision of the child, use of the discussion in solving all important issues concerning the group;

Features of the system of the child's relationship to the world and to himself

Attitude to yourself

Positive "I-concept", stable positive self-esteem

14) creating a situation of success;

15) creating conditions for the child to comprehend himself, his actions and social relations (the stage of reflection of the occupation);

16) the organization of situations of positive feedback and productive criticism (reflection sessions, Hot stool and others)

The third stage. Methods and methods of work that correspond to the tasks. Specific types of correctional work (exercises, techniques, tasks).

The third working principle is of an organizational nature. In detail it will be described below, but now we note that models of correction-development programs are associated with diagnostic work both in terms of organization and timing. Correction work is carried out immediately after the first and second stages of diagnosis, while consulting with teachers and parents, which increases the effectiveness of this activity.

Previously, it was noted that the corrective work can be carried out in two forms: individual and group. In this system, preference is given to group work, as from the point of view of the corrective and developing result it has great potentialities and also technical advantages.

Group work with both adults and children can be carried out both in the traditional form (lessons of a psychologist with children) and in non-traditional (developing and corrective content is included in various types within school interaction). Let's consider them in more detail.

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