Methods of diagnosis of individual psycho-physiological characteristics...

Methods of diagnosis of individual psycho-physiological characteristics of a person

By now, differential psychophysiology has a large arsenal of methodological tools for diagnosing SNA that have passed all the necessary stages of verification. These are laboratory methods that require special equipment and a special room, as well as blank methods. First, let's briefly dwell on the history of creating techniques in the Teplov-Nebylitsyn school.

At the initial stage of studying the properties of the nervous system in humans, the initial search for and the creation of techniques was the disclosure with the maximum authenticity of the physiological content of each of the basic properties of the nervous system adopted in Pavlov's school.

Clear and clear requirements for methodical methods were formulated by BM Teplov. The most accurate knowledge of the content of the SNS can be obtained using the techniques of "involuntary reactions", and especially those in which not only the detected indicator is involuntary, but also the reaction by which it is obtained. These indicators are most often clearest in terms of their physiological content and most uniquely determine the properties studied.

Initially, the leading role in the study of SNA in humans belonged to conditioned reflex techniques. It was established that the concepts worked out in Pavlov's school on the basis of conditioned reflex techniques are also applicable to the description of individual features of higher human nervous activity. On the basis of some physiological function (vegetative, sensory, motor, bioelectric), new conditioned reflexes were developed in man, and the individual features of the dynamics of conditioned reflex activity were considered as indicators of certain SNS.

A detailed description of the techniques of that period is given in the works of BM Teplov (1985), VD Nebylitsyn (1966) and their collaborators. Such techniques almost always require long-term work with the test subject and rather complex equipment, but their main drawback is that it is sometimes impossible to develop conditioned reflexes in some subjects. In addition, as the development of human ATP research, new properties (lability, activation) were discovered in the Teplov-Nebylitsyn school, which had no conditional reflex indicators at all. Therefore later in the differential psychophysiology tendencies to a wider use of unconditioned reflex techniques were outlined.

Most diagnostic techniques are presented in the electroencephalographic version. With the help of an electroencephalograph, biocurrents of the brain are recorded and, according to the figure of the electroencephalogram, the degree of expression of one or another property of the nervous system in a person is determined.

For an example, let us describe an electroencephalographic technique used in the laboratory of BM Teplov to diagnose the lability of the nervous system. As an indicator, the duration of depression of the alpha-rhythm is taken after the cessation of the action of the light stimulus. The subject is in a darkened shielded chamber. He sits in a chair with his eyes open. Electrodes are superimposed on the parieto-occipital region of the head. First, a background electroencephalogram is recorded. Then, a light stimulus of 20 lux (near the subject's eyes) is turned on. The duration of the stimulus is 10 seconds. The source of light stimuli is the photo-stimulator. In response to the stimulus, depression of the alpha rhythm occurs. The indicator of lability is the average duration of depression of alpha rhythm (in centimeters) with the successive application of 10 light stimuli. Restoration of the alpha-rhythm is considered the appearance of a row of four alpha-vibrations. The more labile the nervous system, the faster the recovery of the alpha rhythm after the cessation of the action of the stimulus. The more inert the nervous system, the more time it takes to restore the alpha rhythm after switching off the light stimulus.

In addition to electroencephalographic techniques, motor methods were used to diagnose the SNS. These are different options for measuring the reaction time of a person to an external stimulus (light, sound).

Thus, to diagnose the strength of the nervous system, VD Nebylitsyn proposed a technique for measuring the response time to a stimulus of different loudness. The reaction time is measured using a special device - a neurochromometer.

Instrumentation techniques are reliable and accurate measurement methods. They are most clear in their content, most unambiguous and most of these techniques are considered to be the main reference methods for determining ATP.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)