Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem
If we talk about the ecological environment of man, then, according to W. Bronfenbrenner, it is a system of structures built into each other like matryoshkas. As a starting matryoshka, you can consider a mother and baby dyad. It is known that in a dyad the development of one entails a change in the properties of the other. Moreover, this approach is valid for other types of relations: wife and husband, boss and subordinate, brother and sister, etc. There are several types of dyads. The first kind of dyad is connected with observation, when one of the subjects pays close attention to the actions of the other. In this case, if the second subject, in turn, draws attention to the first, then the dyadic interaction will move to the next level - the level (or type) of the joint action. Such a name does not mean that subjects perform one action. It is about performing actions that are complementary, for example, the mother reads the story to the child, while the child turns over the pages, answers her questions, etc. The third kind of dyad - the primary dyad - continues to exist even when the subjects are not directly adjacent. At this level, the dyadic interaction is realized in a mental way: a person can be far away, but he is worried about, considered with his views, etc.
"A microsystem is a pattern of activities, roles and interpersonal interactions experienced by a developing person in a given environment with a specific set of physical characteristics and the presence of people who have their own temperament, personality and convictions." It should be noted that this is not just about the objective environment, but about the specificity of experiencing his subject. In other words, they must have a meaning for it. In fact, W. Bronfenbrenner repeats the idea of K. Levine about the existence of a phenomenal field that differs from material reality. A child's microsystems can be his family and a kindergarten group. The behavior of children of parents who survived the Great Depression in the United States can illustrate the influence of the microsystem. After becoming adults, these children were restless parents who had difficulties in their personal lives. Moreover, even the children of their children had pronounced difficulties in their behavior. It is important to emphasize that this is not about the inheritance of temperament, but about the experience of specific circumstances in a very difficult economic situation.
A mesosystem consists of links between several environments in which a person is located (for example, a home and school or a house and a job). In other words, the mesosystem is a combination of microsystems. In the study of S. Scarr-Salapatec and M. Williams, 30 newborns weighing between 1,300 and 1,800 g and their mothers took part. Almost all children were born to African-American teenagers from the poor. Mothers and their babies were divided into two groups: children from the control group received regular care; for children and mothers from the experimental group a special program was developed. While the children of the experimental group were in the hospital, the staff, in addition to feeding, played and communicated with children (an average of four hours a day); children from the control group were taken in hand only for feeding and other procedures. After the children were sent home to their mothers, a social worker came to the mothers of the experimental group once a week throughout the year to play and play with the child, and to educate the young mother about the development of her baby, the rules of upbringing, etc. The results showed that, that 22% of children from the experimental group had an IQ of less than 90, while 67% of the children in the control group had the same level of intellectual development. These data can be explained by the fact that, in addition to dyadic relations with the mother, the children had a relationship with the representative of the hospital staff and with the social worker. It is also interesting that "most mothers from the experimental group were interested in the help of a social worker not only to their children, but to themselves. They sought advice on many practical aspects of life (about an apartment, getting a job, etc.), as well as in their personal lives (difficulties in dealing with men, their mothers, brothers and sisters, etc.). The work to accompany the child gave more support to mothers than it was originally planned, but it was necessary to provide real help to the baby. " It is obvious that the develop