Organization Change Model
P. Likert, studying the nature of the organization, established three types of variables that determine the long-term effectiveness of the organization. To the causal variables, he attributed intra-organizational factors under the control of the administration - the formal structure of the organization, the economic strategy and social policy, the vocational qualifications of workers, etc. Intermediate variables denote the human resources of the organization - the attitude to work and people's skills, the organizational climate, the methods of decision-making, the level of trust in management, loyalty, ways to stimulate and motivate activities, etc. The resulting dependent variables express the final result of efforts - the growth or fall of labor productivity and profit, satisfaction with their products of consumer requests, etc.
The relationship between these factors can be presented as incentives (causes) that affect the body (resources) and create a certain result (output). This model explains why trying to directly affect intermediate variables, as a rule, does not lead to success.
It is more appropriate to influence them through changing causal factors. Similarly, an attempt to improve the resulting performance of an organization through an impact on intermediate, according to R. Likert, is less successful than changing the causal variables.
A special role belongs to causal variables, since they affect all the others. The causal variables include the factors that really affect the management of the organization. Change of causal variables entails changing intermediate variables - attitudes, motivations, qualifications of employees, intragroup relations. A change in the socio-psychological characteristics leads to a change in the resulting variables, the goals pursued by managers - the economic performance of the organization (Figure 3.1).
Fig. 3.1. Basic variables of the organizational development approach
P. Likert developed the structure of an ideal, in his opinion, management organization in the enterprise. Among its main characteristics:
a) leadership style, in which the manager demonstrates his trust and confidence of his subordinates;
b) motivation based on the desire of leaders to encourage subordinates, involving them in active work, using group forms of activity;
c) communication, where information flows are directed in all directions and distributed among all levels;
d) Decision making is characterized by the fact that they are approved at all levels with the participation of all members of the organization;
e) the organization's goals established through group discussion, which should remove the latent opposition to these goals;
e) control, whose functions are not concentrated in one center, but are distributed among many participants.
The principle of maintaining relations in such an organization - the leaders should provide the maximum opportunity for all actions within a particular organizational structure to be considered as complementary and aimed at building and maintaining the personal dignity and importance of employees.
Of course, organizational development is not an end in itself, and the value of changes is not in themselves, but in the consequences, expectations and results to which the activity of management is directed. The result, which the manager seeks, is the result of effective actions at the level of the entire organization, which captures the essence of the organization. The change in the fundamental elements of the organization entails a change in the methods of solving organizational problems. Essential changes, and not only methodological ones, lead to real changes in the organization. One of such systemic influences affecting all layers and levels of existence of the enterprise is the creation and implementation of a system of in-house training. The mechanisms included in the change act on the levels of personality-group-organization and lead to real changes. The fullness of influence on the organization somewhat reduces the resistance and makes it more manageable.
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