Models of Organizational Behavior of Employees
All employees of the organization, except the leader, are subordinate, i.e. persons under the authority of the senior in office.
The figure of a subordinate is characterized by official dependence on the manager, functional narrowness and one-sidedness of the work, close relationship with the primary team, the predominance of interpersonal forms of relations in the performance of official duties, exposure to influence by authoritative colleagues.
The subordinate of any rank and leader form within the organization the simplest social group (another group is colleagues, ie persons who are not dependent on each other and are not connected by management relations-subordination). Within the framework of this group, the manager has the right to establish and support the behavior of the subordinate, order, demand, seek the implementation of orders, monitor the results, and the subordinate must perform the task in good faith, criticize the head if necessary and appeal against his actions in accordance with the established procedure.
Style - a stable integrity, a characteristic unity, a system of receptions and means of activity; either a characteristic of products of creativity, or a kind of self-manifestation of the personality of the subject of activity. In psychology, style manifestations are studied in connection with the individual characteristics of the activity that creates the products of activity and the individuality of the subject that engenders this activity and expresses itself in it.
Different trends in the study of style manifestations made it possible to identify common characteristics of the style. According to A. Libin, these characteristics include the following.
1. Style unity. The entire process of human behavior or activity is permeated with certain style attributes, which include the preference of the stimulus or object and the type of situation, means and methods of achieving the goal, the "form" result.
2. Invariance. At all levels of the system, the integral of the system-forming components must be represented by a single result.
3. The hierarchy of the style sphere organization. The set of definite links between the various parameters of individuality, and between these parameters and situational variables.
4. Cross-relevance. Stability of style manifestations, regardless of situational context.
Style Is a connecting link between the human psyche and the external world in which it exists. It occupies an intermediate position between the individual and the environment, and therefore, it is twofold conditioned, on the one hand, by the properties of the personality, on the other, by the characteristics of activity and environment. At present, several dozen definitions of style can be found. In psychology, stylistic manifestations are associated with the individual characteristics of the activity that creates the products of activity, as well as the individuality of the subject that generates this activity and expresses itself in it. The condition for the formation of a style is a certain activity, which implies sufficient freedom of its execution, which gives the subject the opportunity to choose the most effective ways for him to perform it. The peculiarity of the style is determined both by the creative abilities of a person and by the tolerance of society.
Due to the relative constancy of the person's inner world, the basic strategies of his behavior in different situations, his behavior in the situation of organizational reality can also be quite stable, which means that it is possible to identify certain styles of behavior of the organization's personnel. People with different individual characteristics, different life experiences, demonstrate different, relatively stable ways of behavior in different situations. And these behaviors can be defined as individual styles of submission.
There are various typologies of organizational behavior. One of the first typologies is related to the concepts of motivation for performing activities, this is the "theory of X" Theory D. McGregor. Originally, D. McGregor described personnel of the type "X" and staff like . . And later I began to say that depending on which subordinates faced the leader at the first stages of his activity, he had a certain model employees.
Based on the "theory X", a person is dislike for work, he tries to avoid it, therefore, constant control and compulsion to work is necessary. The main motivator is economic needs, which means that a person does what makes the greatest economic profit. And also a person must be constantly stimulated, since initially he is passive. Theories X is contrasted with the theory of & quot ;. She says that a person has a need to realize mental and physical abilities while performing work. At the same time, self-control and self-guidance are inherent in people. The work is more motivated by the goals and content of the activity, as well as by the interest. An employee of the U the motivator is social needs and the desire to manifest one's individuality.
E. S. Yakhontova offers five typologies of subordinates.
Typology 1. The basis is the employee's inclination to obey the manager. Hence the three types of subordinates.
Typology 2. The basis is the preference in the work - two types of subordinates.
2. Oriented to the task.
Typology 3. The basis is the approach and attitude to the task - four types of subordinates.
Typology 4. The basis is the propensity to a particular activity - four types of subordinates.
2. Unshakable .
3. Grumbling .
4. Host .
Typology 5. The basis - the propensity for self-assertion and interaction with colleagues - four types of subordinates.
Performing activities include seven psychological characteristics.
1. Purposefulness - aimlessness.
2. Motivation is disinterested.
3. Self-reliance is dependence.
4. Organizationality is spontaneity.
5. Responsibility is irresponsibility.
6. Competence is incompetence.
7. Creativity - routine.
On these scales, it is possible to compile psychological "profiles" performers and highlight the most typical of them:
1) creative type of performer, independent, competent, seeking;
2) over-normative - purposeful, interested, organized;
5) transforming instructions from the manager;
A. G. Maklakov distinguishes the following types of subordinates according to the criterion of personal discipline.
1. Bohemian type. Unorganized, hardly accepts any norms. Behavior is governed by a momentary goal, more often of emotional origin.
2. The egoistic. The norms to which he follows are internally closed, they are either loosely related to social norms or contradict them. Subject strictly observes its norm, but neglects common ones.
3. Reference. Depends on the norms of a certain small group.
4. Socially-state. Firmly accepts the norms of their society, guaranteeing the inner well-being of the individual and regulating the relationship with the nearest social environment.
There are also other typologies of subordinates, based on a variety of criteria. The parametric model of M is the most complete. E. Raskumandrina, presented below. The merits of this model include the validity of the grounds for classifying employees of the organization and the availability of diagnostic tools that have been psychometrically checked.
Μ. E. Raskumandrina offers a two-dimensional approach to the style of submission that allows you to separate the subordination style to two constructs: subordination - acceptance or rejection of the position of the subordinate and "compliance", i.e. the adoption of the problem in its original form, or the formulation of its compliance with its own interests (Figure 5.2).
Fig. 5.2. The style model of organizational behavior Μ. E. Raskumandrina
Using these constructs, you can select five styles of submission.
1. Obeying, fully accepting the task assigned to him and fulfilling it in the form in which it was set by the leader. For such a subordinate, the following features may be peculiar:
- low self-esteem;
- the leading motive - avoiding failure;
- the presence of authorities, idols,
- the feeling we & quot ;;
- collectivism; rigidity;
- instability to uncertainty;
- an interest in external praise, approval;
- the desire to "be good";
- lack of ambitious plans;
is the pleasure of a well-done affair;
- dependence on the opinions of others;
- the ability to establish social contacts.
Such a subordinate can be called a "regulatory subordinate" or metaphorically - "slave-subordinate."
2. Obeying, but not accepting the task in the form in which it is put before him, reformulating it in such a way that its fulfillment would be in his personal interests. This is a man with a double bottom, he has certain features:
- the leading motive is gaining benefits;
- manipulative communication
- independence from the opinions of others;
- ability to defend one's interests.
Because with this form of interaction between the subordinate and the leader, the goal of the first is achieved concealed, masked by acceptance of subordination, then such a subordinate can be called the "manipulator-slave". Due to the fact that in this case the subordinate is oriented only to his personal interests, he can also be called a "subordinate selfish."
3. A non-recipient, however, accepting a task that does not change it to his own interests, but performs it exactly as it is formulated by the leader and necessary to achieve the organization's goals. Such a subordinate may have a high self-esteem, an interval control locus, and also the following features:
- the leading motive - the achievement of success;
- independence in assessments;
- social courage;
- non-recognition of authorities;
- readiness for conflict in the interests of the matter;
- the objectivity in the estimates;
- high interest in the matter;
Such a subordinate can be called a "business man".
4. It is non-competing and does not accept the task, changing it in such a way that its fulfillment corresponds to its interests. Such a subordinate, formally
is a member of the work collective, in fact, in its internal relation, its interests are not that. To him are peculiar:
- high self-esteem;
- resistance to uncertainty;
- defending your interests;
- social courage.
The duality of the situation allows us to call it the "marginal subordinate."
It is also possible to select metastyle - situational style. The average degree of subordination and diligence allows the subject to choose the most effective way of behavior depending on the situation. Such a subordinate can be called a "situational subordinate."
The optimal combination of subordination and performance allows the subject to choose the most effective way of behavior, depending on the situation. Such a subordinate can be called a situational subordinate.
Thus, the definition of organizational behavior of the employee involves the diagnosis of two relatively independent qualities: "subordination" and performance .
Let us cite one more classification of the styles of organizational behavior proposed by N. Samoukina. This typology is rather phenomenological rather than parametric.
1. Host. These people are genetically accustomed to be responsible for their farming. According to the economy of the organization in which they work, they are not always perceived as their own. Therefore, working as wage workers, they often refer to their activities as a way of earning money. In the workplace of the owner, as a rule, little initiative, quite often use it to solve their work problems or work on the side. If the technology is rigidly set and the possibilities of using working time in their own interests are minimized, the hosts turn into good performers. If the incentive system is built competently, they work intensively and competently. The indifference of the hosts to the work they perform is most often connected with alienation from decision-making and responsibility for the case. If you create the right atmosphere for such a person, use his master's instincts, he turns into a priceless worker.
2. Merchant. These employees refer to their activities as an object of sale. This type of employee is alienated from his labor on a subconscious level. Looks at him as a commodity. The trader is characterized by two main qualities: the first is a purely instrumental attitude to work, and the second is an overestimation of his own activity. At the same time, traders can be qualified and conscientious employees. If the payment of their labor corresponds to the criteria established by them, they fulfill their functions with sense and honesty.
3. Good. This type of employee is distinguished by diligent attitude and diligence. As a negative quality, the author highlights a low level of criticality. Horoshist does not think about the instructions received, he simply executes them, which does not always contribute to a quality work.
4. Creative personality. Unlike ideal performers - horoshistov, creative individuals do not want and can not follow directions. They are not interested in doing what the boss says. In any business they seek to find an element of novelty, to say their word. With such people it is very difficult to work, as often their opinion about their own capabilities is often exaggerated. In addition, trying to solve the problem in their own way, they often do not fully realize the task, their own imagination is more important than the common cause. Creators are people who are keen, and if they set the right task for them, they can do a lot.
5. Троечник. The main task of people of this type is to make it look like work. It's hard for them to get carried away with their own work. To force such people to observe the necessary technology can be in two ways: to put controllers or to reduce the opportunities for independent activity to an absolute minimum.
6. Optimizer The goal of this employee is to simplify the work process as much as possible. Dilettantism and the propensity for improvement inherent in many domestic workers, as the author believes, can cause great damage to the company. Optimizers do not want evil to anyone, they do not strive for their own benefit, they just undertake to correct (improve) technology, not understanding its meaning. But the evil from their good intentions often turns out to be much more than from conscious wrecking.
7. Conformist. These are employees for whom the motto in every life situation is the motto: "Be like everyone else". From the point of view of management, such employees are not conflict-free, understandable, in general, exemplary members of the work collective. The other side of the conformists lies in the absence of moral restraints. In order not to lose their place in the mini community, they are ready for anything, including theft and sabotage to the leadership.Knowing the models of organizational behavior allows employees to make more informed decisions in situations of delegation of authority, conflict management, placement of personnel, etc.
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