Modern Approaches to Diagnosis Related to Professional Activities
Currently, in practice, in relation to a number of professions, instead of tests of special abilities, either tests of achievements, or methods for diagnosing personality traits (strong-willed qualities, conscientiousness, organization, communication skills, leadership characteristics, etc.) and mental states (anxiety, frustration and etc.). The leading position of inclinations and interests in the selection and success of professional activity is recognized, and therefore professional counseling takes first place to identify professional preferences of the client.
Probably, the priority in diagnosing the professional suitability of the personal component is a natural consequence of both the changes taking place in the world of professions and the development of psychological ideas about human individuality. Types of labor requiring routine, monotonous actions are transferred to automatic systems. More and more professions require workers to display intellectual, creative and other abilities, the development of which is impossible without interests, active aspirations, needs for self-actualization, recognition, respect, etc.
At the same time, psychologists (and psychodiagnostics) are beginning to devote the greatest attention to research and evaluation of an integral individuality, the components of which complement each other and compensate each other, are in complex interaction and self-development. Increasingly obvious is the inability to predict the success of different types of activities based on measuring individual mental functions, revealing the level of knowledge and the formation of skills. The parameters measured by the so-called ability tests are extremely labile, variable, unstable, depend on the past experience of the individual, his training and many random factors.
In recent decades, the competence approach has increasingly been used to evaluate and predict the success of professional activities of employees. Under competencies (when this term is used in relation to the psychological characteristics of a person) understand the characteristics of the subject of activity, manifested in his ability to perform work qualitatively. The competence of a person can be judged by the proven results of his past professional activity. In this case, a form of competency assessment is used, such as expert attestation of employee performance and professional qualifications after he has had the opportunity to gain experience (usually during probation ). Certification is widely used if the market is saturated with a skilled workforce.
In recent years, assessment centers (assessment centers) have found wide distribution in the evaluation of professional competence. As a rule, this happens when evaluating staff - managers, managers of different levels, engineers and technical workers and other professionals. As an evaluation criterion, in the assessment centers, performance is used in specially simulated conditions.
New more sophisticated approaches to professional diagnostics are proposed, resulting from the desire to combine traditional test evaluations of professional competence with qualitative methods of analysis of activities. Thus, AG Shmelev and AA Potapkin proposed the method of the "situational-operational lattice" (COP), which is a "compromise between instrumentation simulators, case studies (or the method of solving practical problems), and the techniques of semantic differential and repertory grids."
He was tested on the activities of a realtor. As the professional competence increased, the groups of "beginners", "trainee", "agents" and " and experts & quot ;. Subjects worked with a grid table. The columns of the CRA contained model descriptions of situations of professional activity (12 situations), along the lines - given operational constructs (a list of 40 possible professional actions), at the intersection - evaluative judgments about the possibility/impossibility of this action in this situation. The results of the application of the GRA showed that this method differentiates the subjects well by the levels of their qualification, which indicates its sufficient validity. The authors note the use of the situation-operational lattice for solving the problems of selection and certification of realtors.
Many companies distinguish between performance assessment (Performance assessment) and evaluation of the employee's potential (Competency based assessment ). Behavioral approach to the evaluation of an employee consists in reducing competences to standards of required behavior and developing national standards for different categories of workers. Example - management standards (Management Standards), developed by the Association Management Charter Initiative in the framework of the national standardization program conducted by the UK government. The standards are formulated in terms of the result ("what is expected of a professional person") that this person should be able to do. These standards are applicable to a wide range of managerial roles.
But objectively observable behavior can not be the only criterion for evaluating a leader. Therefore, in addition to these standards, the Personal Competence Model (IPC) was developed, which reflects the personality characteristics that allow the functions presented in the standards to perform effectively. This shows that in the competence approach it is impossible to do without assessing the professionally important qualities of a person. It is in them, and not in knowledge and skills, that Western psychologists see the potential of the worker. Knowledge and skills, as well as requirements for mimes, change with the change and development of professional activity, therefore it is difficult to predict the success of an employee on their basis. However, it should be noted that the requirements for personal characteristics also change, and the personality itself is also not fixed and unchanged. Therefore, it seems that in most types of professional activity, where the success of an employee is not related to natural prerequisites, it is necessary to apply for her prognosis not tests of special abilities, but personal methods aimed at assessing the professionally important qualities of a person. Among the latter, the first place should be devoted to the methods of diagnosing professional motivation, inclinations, interests, value spheres, as well as subjectivity, understood as an integral personal property embodied in the self-determination of professional development.
The modern psychology of professional activity understands professionalism as "genuine subjectivity of the individual in relation to his professional activity and his own professionally significant qualities." This is due to the emergence of a social request for a new type of employee - active, creative, autonomous, capable of continuous professional self-development and effective competition in the labor market. The necessity of arbitrariness and controllability of professional activity assumes that the subject of this activity must possess professional self-awareness, which provides him with an orientation in his own properties and conditions that affect the process and result of the activity. Therefore, in modern psychodiagnostics, a diagnostic toolkit is being developed that makes it possible to evaluate professional subjectivity. As an example, the questionnaire is a professional self-relationship K. V. Karpinsky and A. M. Kolyshka.
Thus, it should be noted that at the present stage of the development of society, a new approach to psychological and psychodiagnostic work related to professional activity has emerged.
Psychologists are aware of the changes in the requirements for the professionally important qualities of workers, and tests of special abilities with low predictive validity indicators are a thing of the past giving way to methods for diagnosing personality traits associated with the success of professional activities.
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