Modern approaches to the diagnosis of intellectual (intellectual) development in domestic science. Domestic tests of mental developmentThe long-term effective use of tests abroad to solve practical problems made domestic psychologists think about how to learn from other people's experience and begin to apply similar methods to the nags in the country, primarily in order to optimize the learning process for children.
More often than not, those psychological characteristics that are considered abroad in the light of the study of intelligence are treated in the domestic psychology in connection with the concept of mental development.
Mental development, being a dynamic system, depends both on the assimilation of social experience and on the maturation of the organic basis (the brain and the nervous system in the first place), creating, on the one hand, the necessary prerequisites for development, and on the other hand, changing under the influence activities. Mental development is not the same, depending on the living conditions and upbringing of the child. In the spontaneous, unorganized development process, its level is lowered, bears the imprint of the inferior functioning of mental processes. Therefore, it is very relevant for a psychologist working in the education system to diagnose the level of mental development of each child.
Indicators of mental development, considered by domestic psychologists, depend on the content of theoretical concepts of mental development, which they adhere to. Among them are the characteristics of mental processes (mainly thinking and memory), and the characteristics of learning activity, and indicators of creative thinking. None of the identified indicators of mental development is not exhaustive, fully reflecting the characteristics of the cognitive sphere of individuals at certain stages of development. It is hardly possible to find a universal characteristic of mental development, which can be measured with equal effectiveness in individuals of different ages, irrespective of their education, experience of basic activity and living conditions. As Vygotsky noted, 1 it is difficult to hope for the existence of equal units for measuring all the steps in the development of the intellect, each qualitatively new stage requires its own special measure.
The understanding of mental development that has developed in modern United States psychodiagnostics reflects the views of a number of leading psychologists (AN Leontiev, NS Leites, KM Gurevich, and others). It is considered as a function of the accumulated knowledge fund, as well as the mental operations that ensure the acquisition and use of this knowledge. In essence, this characteristic reflects the forms, ways and content of human thinking. This is what the tests of intelligence do.
Interest in the psychological diagnosis of intellectual development in domestic practice has increased dramatically in the 60-70-ies. XX century. Required case-based objective methods, which domestic science at that time did not possess. Work in the search for such methods began to be carried out in two fundamentally different ways. Since abroad there was a large number of intellectual tests that corresponded to all psychometric requirements, the first approach consisted in their borrowing. At the same time, careful adaptation and re-standardization of the test, as well as verification of its reliability and validity in domestic samples were carried out. Such work was carried out with respect to the tests described above by Wechsler, Amthauer, Vana.
The imperfection of this approach to intellectual diagnostics, based on the translation and adaptation of foreign tests, is the impossibility of eliminating the influence on their results of the culture factor. Any diagnostic techniques, and tests of intelligence, among other things, reveal the degree of involvement of the subject to the culture that is represented in the test, form a kind of sociocultural filter through which only individuals with the content presented in the methodology will successfully pass. Even the perfect translation and adaptation do not change the important fact that the test is "foreign" an instrument created for other socio-cultural groups and in accordance with the specific requirements for the mental development of their representatives (for more details, see Chapter 18).
In connection with the above, domestic psychodiagnostics develop their own tests of mental development, designed for our culture. One of the scientific teams, the first to undertake this task, was LA Venger's laboratory of psychophysiology of preschool children at the Research Institute for Preschool Education of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR. As a result of their many years of activity, there have been sets of methods aimed at assessing the level of mental development of children aged 3 to 7 years and the preparedness of preschool children for schooling. These methods were theoretically justified. Their development was preceded by a thorough analysis of modern ideas about the content of mental development, its basic laws and age characteristics.
Diagnostic techniques developed under the leadership of LA Wenger were standardized and repeatedly tested for validity and reliability. The efforts of another scientific team (led by V. I. Lubovsky) were directed to the development of diagnostic techniques for detecting delays and violations of the mental development of children. The goal set by this team was to create a system of diagnostic techniques that were built taking into account the specific and general patterns of abnormal development of the psyche. Such features are the structure of the defect, the dynamic characteristics of mental activity and the potential possibilities of cognitive activity. Presented with the help of these techniques complex, as it were three-dimensional the characteristic of mental activity makes it possible to differentiate the delay of mental development from the mild degree of mental retardation, on the one hand, and from pedagogical neglect in the normal mental development of the child, on the other. In addition, the practical importance of the application of such methods is determined by the possibilities of constructing correctional work with children on their material.
The problems that remain to be solved in connection with the creation of such methods relate to their standardization and improvement of the criteria for assessing individual indicators. As for the theoretical validity of the diagnostic system, it deserves the highest appreciation.
Four tests have been developed at the Psychological Institute of the United States Academy of Education to diagnose the mental development of schoolchildren of different ages and two tests for adult individuals. All of them are based on the concept of socio-psychological norms (SPN), proposed by KM Gurevich. According to this concept, the mental development of individuals occurs under the influence of a system of requirements that society presents to each of its members. Man, in order not to be rejected by that social community into which he is included in order to realize himself in conditions created by this community, must master these requirements.
These requirements are objective, since they are determined by the basis of the achieved level of development of a given society; they are not isolated, but constitute an integral system, under the influence of which the image of the individual is formed in a given social community. The most general and fundamental of these requirements are called the system of social and psychological standards.
The theoretical basis for such a definition of standards is the understanding of the development that has developed in psychology and which AN Leontiev characterized as a specific process of appropriating the achievements of previous generations by the child.
Mastering socio-psychological standards is an active process on the part of the individual: in order to occupy a certain place in the society, he consciously realizes this, making certain efforts, overcoming the obstacles that arise, etc.
The requirements that make up the content of socio-psychological standards are very real, fixed in the form of rules, prescriptions and are present in educational programs, qualifying professional characteristics, the public opinion of adult members of society, the traditions of upbringing and education, the customs of everyday life. They cover different aspects of mental development - mental, moral, aesthetic.
Since the norms are historical, they change with the development of society. Therefore, the speed of their change depends on the pace of development of society. Along with this, the time of their existence is determined by their relation to one or another mental sphere. Thus, the most dynamic standards for mental development, which is associated with the pace of scientific and technological progress, putting forward new requirements for the person, his knowledge, skills, the formation of thinking, as a result of which there is a review of curricula, qualification characteristics. In comparison with the norms of intellectual development, the standards of personal development are more conservative, in particular this refers to the norms of moral development.
The system of socio-psychological standards is not absolute, it is differentiated within each social community within the educational-age boundaries. The necessity of educational-age gradations for standards is explained by two reasons: first, the mastery of regulations implies a certain degree of maturity of the brain and the nervous system; secondly, the assimilation of standards is possible only on the basis of accumulated experience, trained gi.
The socio-psychological standard is regarded as a mandatory minimum in the development of a particular psychic sphere, it can not be considered the limit of development.
Since the first tests focused on the socio-psychological standard are aimed at diagnosing the mental development of schoolchildren, it was formulated that understanding of the norm that was taken as a basis. Considering the role of teaching in the mental development of a school-age child, considering the content of education as its main determinant, it was accepted that the sociopsychological normative of schoolchildren is a set of specific requirements of the curriculum that are presented to them at a certain stage of training.
The introduction of the standard in diagnostics made it necessary to review both the testing objectives, and the ways of designing, processing and interpreting the techniques. Let's consider what are the principal differences of tests of intellectual development, focused on the standard, from traditional intelligence tests.
The first difference is due to the special content of most test tasks. If the author of the intellectual test is usually guided by his own experience and intuition, checking himself by practice, and usually using everyday concepts, the authors of normative-oriented tests rely on the analysis of school programs. They contain the basic concepts, as well as mental actions, the possession of which can serve as an indicator of mental development of schoolchildren. In the selection of concepts, psychologists tried to ensure that they approximately in equal proportions represented all the studied subjects and cycles (social, humanitarian, natural science and physics and mathematics).
The second difference between the methods being considered and the intelligence tests lies in other ways of representation and processing of diagnostic results, the main of which is the rejection of the statistical norm as a criterion for estimating individual and group results in favor of the criterion of approximation of data to the socio-psychological norm. In tests, the standard is presented in the form of a complete set of tasks.
The third difference between the domestic tests of intellectual development and traditional ones is the correctness, which makes it possible to trace the immediate development of students and to provide special measures and directions for eliminating the observed developmental defects.
The first in a series of normative tests of mental development was the School Mental Development Test (111TUR), designed for students in grades 7-10. His first edition appeared in 1986. It consisted of six subtests: 1) and 2) General Awareness; 3) Analogies & quot ;; A) Classifications & quot ;; 5) Generalizations & quot ;; 6) Numeric series & quot ;. The test is group and convenient because it allows you to get information about the mental development of a whole class in a short time.
In 1997, a new version of the test (STUR-2) was prepared. In addition to a number of revised tasks of the listed subtests, it includes two subtests for spatial thinking. Authors of the test: MK Akimova, EM Borisova, KM Gurevich, VG Zarkhin, VT Kozlova, GP Loginova, AM Rayevsky.
The psychometric characteristics of the test are as follows: the equivalence of parallel forms on a common score is 0.83; homogeneity - 0,96-0,98; retestovaya reliability but the total score of the form A = 0.93; form B = 0.90. Coefficients of validity when compared with the results of the Amthauer test are 0.75, when compared with school performance, 0.57 (Form A) and 0.54 (Form B).
1. & Awareness & quot ;. It is required from the subject to correctly supplement the sentence by selecting one answer from the five proposed options.
The initial letters of the name and patronymic are called ...
a) a monogram; b) initials; c) autograph; d) the index; e) anagram.
2. & Awareness & quot ;. It is required to choose a synonym of four variants for this word.
Argument - ...
a) argument; b) consent; c) dispute; d) a phrase.
3. Analogies & quot ;. It is necessary to determine the nature of the logical-functional connection between a pair of concepts, and then to choose the third word such that the logical-functional relationship between them is similar to that used in the pair.
Numeral: number = verb ...
a) go; b) the action; c) Communion; d) part of speech; e) conjugate.
4. Classifications & quot ;. From five words one should find one that does not approach the others:
a) parallel; b) the map; c) the meridian; d) the equator; e) pole.
5. Generalizations & quot ;. The subject needs to select generalizing words for each pair of words, determining what is common between them:
heart is an artery.
6. Numeric series & quot ;. For each series of numbers it is necessary to find the next member of the series, understanding the pattern of its construction:
2 3 5 6 8 9 ...
7. Spatial representations & quot ;. It is required to determine from which combination of parts it is possible to assemble a given geometric figure.
8. Spatial representations & quot ;. It is required to determine which three-dimensional figure can be made from a sweep.
The test results are quantitatively and qualitatively processed. In this case, both individual and group analysis are possible. In addition to the overall score, compared with the norm established in the test and educational-age norms, the authors of the test suggest ways of analyzing the individual structure of mental development, reflecting the different formations of mental actions laid down in subtests, as well as preferences when working with a certain content of tasks (humanitarian, physical and mathematical , natural science). These same areas of analysis are also used when working with other tests, which will be described below.
A special Mental Development Test for Applicants and High School Students (ASTUR) was developed to diagnose the mental development of high school graduates and entrants. The test is based on the same theoretical principles of normative diagnostics as the STU (author's team: MK Akimova, EM Borisova, KM Gurevich, VG Zarkhin, VT Kozlova, G. P Loginova, AM Raevskii, II A. Ferens, 1995).
The test includes eight subtests: 1) "Awareness"; 2) Double analogies & quot ;; 3) Lability; & quot ;; 4) Classification & quot ;; 5) Generalization & quot ;; 6) Logic Schemes & quot ;; 7) Numeric series & quot ;; 8) Geometric shapes & quot ;.
The weight of the task of the test is based on the material of school curricula and textbooks and is designed to study the level of mental development of high school graduates. When processing the results of testing, you can get not only the overall score, but also the individual test profile of the subject, indicating the priority mastery of concepts and logical operations on the material of the main cycles of academic disciplines (social, humanities, physics, mathematics, and science) and the prevalence of verbal or imaginative thinking. Thus, on the basis of testing, it is possible to predict the success of subsequent training of graduates in educational institutions of different profiles. Along with the characteristics of mental development, the test allows to obtain a characteristic of the speed of the course of the thought process (subtest "Lability"), which is evidence of the presence of a certain expression of manifestations of the properties of the nervous system ("lability-inertness").
Subtests included in the ASTUR test:
1. & Awareness & quot ;. From the subject it is required to correctly supplement the sentence from the five reduced words.
Opposite to the word negative there will be a word ... a) unsuccessful; b) controversial; c) important; d) random; e) positive.
2. Double analogies & quot ;. The subject needs to determine the logical relationships that exist between the two concepts, provided that in both pairs one concept is omitted. It is necessary to pick up the missed concepts in such a way that between the first word of the job and the first word of one of the data, the choice of pairs was the same as between the second word of the job and the second word of the same pair.
Table - x = a cup - y, like:
a) furniture - coffee pot;
b) lunch - utensils;
c) furniture - dishes;
d) round - spoon;
e) Stool - drink.
The correct answer is "furniture - utensils".
3. Lability & quot ;. In a subtest, a number of simple instructions are required to be carried out quickly and error-free in a very short period of time.
Write the first letter of your name and the last letter of the title of the current month.
4. Classification & quot ;. Six words are given. Among them, you need to find two, only two, which can be combined for some common feature.
Example: a) the cat; b) the parrot; c) dog; d) the beetle; e) Spaniel; c) Lizard.
The words you are looking for are "dog" and "spaniel", because they can be combined on a common basis: both means the breed of dogs.
5. Generalization & quot ;. The subject is offered two words. We need to determine what is common between them (find the most significant signs for both words) and write this concept into an answer sheet.
Example: rain is hail.
The correct answer is the word "precipitation".
6. Logic Schemes & quot ;. The subject is asked to arrange several concepts in the logical scheme from general to particular; you need to build a tree logical relations, denoting the place of each concept by a corresponding letter, and the relationship between them is an arrow.
Example: a) Dachshund; b) an animal; c) dwarf poodle; d) the dog; e) wire-haired dachshund; f) poodle. The scheme is as follows:
7. Numeric series & quot ;. Numerical series are proposed, located according to a certain rule. It is necessary to define two numbers that would be an extension of the corresponding series.
Example: 2 A & amp; b 10 12 ...
In the row, each successive number is 2 more than the previous number. Therefore, the following numbers will be 14 and 16.
8. Geometric shapes & quot ;. This subtest diagnoses the features of the spatial thinking of the subjects and includes a variety of assignments for understanding the drawings, determining geometric figures for scans, etc.
The test takes about one and a half hours. The test is tested for reliability and validity.
Approbation of the test on the samples of applicants from three higher educational institutions confirmed its suitability for the selection of students for different faculties. The testing was conducted with the entrants of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Pedagogical Institute, the Medical Faculty of the Medical Institute and the Humanities College. It turned out that the first performed the tasks of the physical and mathematical cycle of the test, the second - the tasks of the natural-science cycle and the last - the tasks of the social-humanitarian cycle. At the same time, the correlation coefficient, reflecting the degree of connection between the test results in the test as a whole and the values of the passing scores, was 0.70 at the significance level p & lt; 0.01. All this confirms the legitimacy of using ASTUR to select students for different faculties of higher educational institutions.
Within the framework of the concept of the socio-psychological normative, the Mental Development Test of Junior Schoolchildren was also designed (authors EM Borisova, VP Arslanian), the distinctive feature of which is that with its help it is possible to assess the levels of development of both visual and verbal thinking. At the same time in both types of thinking the same logical operations are measured: analogies, classifications, generalizations.
The test is intended for students of 2-4 grades. It consists of two blocks.
The first block (verbal) includes subtests aimed at revealing features of verbal-logical conceptual thinking (two variants A and B have been developed). Assignments consist of verbal and numerical materials. The block includes the following subtests: "Awareness", "Classification", "Analogies", "Generalizations" and two mathematical subtests.
The second block consists of subtests aimed at revealing the features of non-verbal thinking, since development in this educational-age period is characterized by a transition from visual-figurative to verbal-logical, reasoning thinking. Tasks are chosen in the same way as in the first block, but they consist of cards with images of objects, animals, plants, geometric figures, phenomena of nature, etc. This block includes the following subtests: "Classification", "Analogies", "Generalizations", "Sequential Pictures", "Geometric Analogies".
The reliability of the test was determined by repeated testing after 3 months. Rank correlation coefficients range from 0.50 to 0.80 for the verbal block and from 0.52 to 0.84 for the non-verbal.
Another kind of reliability was defined - homogeneity, i.e. the coefficients of pair correlation of tasks that were from 0.88 to 0.92 for the verbal block and from 0.79 to 0.87 for the nonverbal block were calculated.
The theoretical validity (which was determined by comparing the success of this test with the Group intellectual GIT test) turned out to be 0.75, and the practical (determined by comparison of test results with school performance) - 0.53 (for nonverbal test) and 0.50 up to 0.69 for the verbal.
Another Mental Development Test (TURP), designed to diagnose junior adolescents 2-5 grades, was developed by LI Teplova.
Since the content of the junior teenager's educational activities is not only concepts, but also images, representations, non-verbal tasks were also introduced into the test. Built on mathematical content, they included images of geometric bodies, mathematical symbols and schemes. In tasks using the content of the United States language, schemes of words, sentences of word combinations are included.
TURP consists of 102 tasks that are divided into six subtests: 1) Awareness; 2) Classifications & quot ;; 3) Analogies & quot ;; 4) Suggestions & quot ;; 5) "Continue row"; 6) Generalizations & quot ;. In the subtests of the Classifications & quot ;, Analogies & quot ;, Generalizations The concepts of three subject areas are represented - "United States language and literature", "natural history" and math & quot ;. Subtest Quests & Suggestions represent the area of knowledge United States language & literature & quot ;, and subtest assignments Continue row - math .
Coefficients of correspondence of parallel forms for different age groups - from 0,84 to 0,87; the homogeneity coefficients are 0.99. Retest reliability (the interval between the first and repeated testing is 6 months) - 0.93 (Form A) and 0.96 (Form B).
Coefficients of validity in comparison with the Group intellectual test Vana for different forms and ages are in the range from 0.68 to 0.90. Correlation coefficients with school performance are 0.61 (3rd grades) and 0.59 (5th grades).
Thus, all the described domestic tests of mental development of schoolchildren have good psychometric characteristics, which allows them to be considered as objective instruments of psychodiagnostics, useful in the work of a school psychologist.
Another mental development test, developed on the basis of the SPN concept, is the Mental Development Test for Adults (TURV). It is designed to assess the mental development of adult members of our society aged between 18 and 50 years and is aimed at diagnosing general awareness, defined as a microenvironment (family, school, spheres of communication), and social conditions in general, and theoretical thinking affecting success training, scientific work and other types of cognitive (theoretical) activity. Authors of the test - MK Akimov, EI Gorbachev, VT Kozlova, NA Ferens. The principles of normative diagnostics have been further developed in TURV. diagnostics, oriented not to the statistical norm, but to the socio-psychological normative.
In order to identify the socio-psychological norm of mental development of adults, the curricula of the upper secondary school and the subjects of the general educational block of higher education were analyzed, the dominant content of information and scientific and cultural programs of television, some mass newspapers and magazines, and reference publications was studied. The selected concepts and blocks of information were subjected to expert assessments. As experts, individuals aged 40-65 who had higher education, a high intellectual level, engaged in intellectual activities (scientific and teaching), made speeches. The norm of mental development of adults included:
- the ability to define scientific and cultural concepts, i.e. formulate in their explicit and concise form their main content;
- general awareness, awareness, ie. level growing in culture & quot ;, level assignments dominant information in it;
- the ability to make inferences; their reduced form - the enthymeme - is an integral part of both everyday and professional thinking of an adult, contributing to the rapid processing of incoming information;
- the ability to understand and categorize the life situations contained in proverbs, find them common and different;
- the ability to think by analogy on the material of scientific and cultural concepts;
- the ability to generalize, find common and specific in concepts, identify those essential features by which they can be combined;
- the ability to understand the patterns, expressed symbol signs, operate on it, which may indicate the presence of an analytical mindset in a person. This is an old proven way to assess a person's mental development. He models this aspect of intellectual activity, which serves as a prerequisite for the actual theoretical thinking.
The test includes seven subtests: Vocab & quot ;, General Awareness & quot ;, Inferences & quot ;, Classifications & quot ;, Analogies & quot ;, Generalizations & quot ;, Numeric series :
1. Vocab & quot ;. The subject must give definitions to the proposed words and expressions.
Example: ideology; fiction; Augean stables.
2. General Awareness - reflects the general awareness, knowledge of individuals in various life spheres, acquired by them through interpersonal contacts, as well as under the influence of the media, works of literature and art. Representative samples of the content of the subtest are knowledge of the socio-political and scientific and cultural nature in their broad understanding.
How many planets of the solar system are known to date: a) 9; b) 15; c) 23; d) 6.
The colors of the United States flag have the following sequence: a) blue, white, red; b) white, blue, red; c) red, white, blue; d) white, red, blue.
3. Inferences - is a variant of tasks for checking skills to draw conclusions from judgments. Most often in mental practice, one has to deal with enthymemes-reduced categorical syllogisms. Entimma is a syllogism in which one of the premises or conclusion is missed. Each of the tasks is an incomplete inference (enthymeme), in which one of its links is missed - a large premise, a smaller premise or conclusion. The subject should choose from among the four suggested judgments (A, B, C and D) that which restores the complete structure of inference.
Which of the given judgments is the missing link in the inference? Any beautiful spectacle raises the soul. The spectacle of a great man's life is always a wonderful sight
a) not every sight raises the soul;
b) the spectacle of the life of a great man raises the soul;
c) everything that elevates the soul is always a beautiful sight;
d) not all beautiful spectacles are a spectacle of the life of a great man.
4. Classifications & quot ;. As tasks, proverb sets are offered. The subject must determine which of the five statements in each assignment does not correspond to the basic meaning of the other four.
a) everyone's own eyesight;
b) Everyone is aware of himself:
c) beauty for the crown, and the mind to the end;
d) every fool is smart for himself:
e) all good for your sample.
5. Analogies & quot ;. Three words are suggested in the tasks. There is a certain connection between the first and the second. The subject should select the answer to the third word from the number given so that there is a similar relationship between them.
Comments: explanations = sovereignty: ...
a) independence; b) the state; c) justice; d) the right; e) state.
6. Generalizations & quot ;. The subject should establish what unites the proposed pairs of words or expressions and write down their answer.
Inspiration is insight. Necessity is an accident.
7. Numeric series & quot ;. Tasks are a series of numbers, each of which is built according to a certain rule. The subject must determine this rule and, in accordance with it, continue the series for the next two numbers.
1) 15 16 14 17 13 18 12 ......;
2) 9 12 14 15 18 20 21 24 ........
Approbation of the test was carried out on a sample of 400 people aged 18 to 50 years. Reliability was determined in two ways: the splitting and retesting way. The coefficients of homogeneity in different subtests ranged from 0.90 to 0.99 (significance level p < 0.001). The coefficient of retest reliability (with an interval between surveys of 5 months) is 0.89 (p & lt; 0.01).
The validation of the test was carried out in two ways:
- the theoretical validity was determined using the internal consistency evaluation method (construct validity) and by comparison with the results of the R. Amthauer test (convergent validity);
- defined pragmatic validity using an external criterion.
The internal consistency of the test was determined by correlating the results of each of the subtests with the total score for the test. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.85 (significance level p < 0.01). These data indicate good construct validity of the test, since all subtests are aimed at evaluating the same construct, which is the level of mental development of adults.
Another way to determine the construct validity is to calculate the correlation coefficients between subtests. They ranged r. range from 0.29 to 0, .17 (significance level/'& lt; 0.01). Thus, this method also testifies to the presence of the construct validity of the test.
Convergent validity, expressed by establishing a TURB connection with a related test (Amthauer), is represented by a correlation coefficient of 0.70 (p & lt; 0.01).
So, different ways of evaluating the theoretical validity of the test indicate that it measures a certain construct that can be interpreted as an indicator of the formed theoretical thinking.
Pragmatic validity, estimated by comparing the results of testing with the success of learning activity (average grade of academic progress at the university), is expressed in the form of a rank correlation coefficient equal to 0.66 (p <0.01).
Thus, TURV passed the necessary psychometric checks and can be used as a psychodiagnostic tool. However, its tests continue on other samples of adult individuals.
Test Practical Adult Thinking was developed and in 2005 described by MK Akimova, VT Kozlova and NA Ferens. Its authors based on the analysis of domestic and foreign studies of practical thinking (intellect) formulated their own approaches to its diagnosis. The main characteristics of this construct, which formed the basis for the development of the test "Practical thinking of adults," were as follows:
- Practical thinking is a means of carrying out practical activities;
- it is aimed at solving specific problems and tasks that arise in special types of professional activity (camera, management, pedagogy, etc.), as well as in everyday life, in everyday life;
- these tasks are limited to the requirements of a particular situation and must be resolved in the foreseeable periods of time, as long as there are conditions and circumstances that caused these tasks;
- the result of the work of practical thinking is specific, has the form of external manifestations and leads to actions, the need to act;
- Practical thinking serves as a means of adaptation to specific conditions of life;
- a specific feature of practical thinking is a detailed analysis of conditions and the development of solutions to all circumstances and a specific situation.
The test includes four subtests, whose tasks are presented in both the verbal and the drawing forms;
1. Completing situations & quot ;. Tasks are unfinished proposals that reflect various problem situations and are formulated in such a way that they stimulate the subject to look for ways to complete them among the three answers. With the help of this subtest, general awareness, ability to find optimal exits from extreme situations, to use non-standard approaches to solving practical problems are revealed.
2. "The solution of worldly problems". Assignments are presented in the form of drawings, which depict two or more people, commas an unfinished conversation. One character tells a friend) 'about some particular problem. Another person has to solve this problem. The subject should, having identified himself with the latter, choose from among the three proposed options one that, in his opinion, is optimal for this situation. The tasks of this subtest are aimed at diagnosing social intelligence.
3. Restoration of the sequence of events ". Subtest tasks consist of six pictures, united by a common plot. Each picture shows a partial episode of the event under consideration. The pictures are arranged so that the sequence of events is broken. The subject must restore it. In this subtest, the ability to recover a logical integer from fragments is checked.
4. "Finding the key moments of the situation". The subject is offered drawings or descriptions of various problem situations. After getting acquainted with each situation, he should select from the presented details one that gives the key to the solution of the problem. This subtest assesses the ability to analyze the situation in detail and find its key points.
Thus, at present domestic practice has a complex of domestic tests designed to diagnose the mental development of individuals of different ages. These tests have theoretical justifications, with them necessary psychometric checks have been carried out, showing their high enough quality.
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