MODERN PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS, SOCIO-CULTURAL...

MODERN PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC

SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS OF PSYCHODIAGNOSTIC

Consider the role of culture in psychological diagnosis. In this context, the concept of culture It is used not in the everyday meaning of ordinary everyday language, reflecting the degree of education and upbringing of a person, but in the sense that is accepted in cultural studies.

The concept of culture encompasses everything inherent in a person, acquired by upbringing, everything that forms it and whereby it becomes a socially active, integral person. At the same time, socially sanctioned ways of activity and behavior of individuals also apply to culture. Culture is the opposite of nature, the totality of the results of human activity; it is the process and result of the person's separation from nature, the creation of a new reality and the way of its existence.

The concept of culture was first defined by EB Tyler in 1874: "Culture or civilization, understood in a broad sense in ethnography, is a complex that includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other possibilities and values ​​required by man as a member of society ". At present, there are several hundred definitions of culture. In 1958, A. Kroyber and K. Klakhop gave this definition of this concept, popular in cross-cultural psychology: "Culture consists of explicit and implied patterns of behavior, as well as those required for behavior and transmitted through symbols embodying the achievements of social groups; The core of culture is generally accepted ideas, traditions and especially related assessments; systems of culture can be viewed, on the one hand, as products of activity, on the other - as elements that determine future activity. "

In domestic psychology, the concept of "culture" is often used. as an "integral characteristic of the socio-psychological and economic conditions of material and spiritual being that exert a direct and indirect influence on the psyche and human activity and on the formation of its individuality and personality."

But people within the same culture do not constitute a homogeneous mass. Within each culture, people can be differentiated according to the level of education, socio-economic status, the nature of professional activity, age and other characteristics. For their description, the concept of "subculture", meaning the culture of smaller social communities, for example the culture of a separate social or professional group, is used. Researchers distinguish several separate sociocultural factors that allow differentiation both within cultures and between different cultures. These include language, urbanization, formal education institutions, literacy, environmental conditions.

Any person belongs to certain social categories, such as race, nationality and so on. It can not be viewed as a kind of "isolated individual", not associated with a particular cultural or subcultural group. In the process of ontogenetic development, he appropriates the achievements of previous generations, first of all assimilating the experience of that sociocultural group to which he belongs. This determines the appearance of socially conditioned characteristics in people. The mental image of a person, his personality and personality are formed under the influence of the requirements, due to his belonging to different social and cultural groups. These requirements are contained in customs and traditions, in the nature of education and upbringing, in public opinion and patterns of behavior of adult members and in other sociocultural factors. The corpus of these demands is in the history of the social and cultural community, and also in the conditions of its existence.

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