Motivation and activity, Motivation, The concept of...

Part 2. Motivation and activity

Chapter 4. Motivation

Desire is half the success.


The concept of motivation

Thousands of years before the word motivation entered into our lives, it was well known that one could deliberately influence people and achieve the desired result from them. The very first of the applied methods of motivation was the method of carrot and stick. In the Bible, ancient traditions, ancient myths and United States folk tales, you can find many stories in which kings offer half a kingdom as a reward or promise to chop off the head to the hero. Gradually, life changed, and today, just with a whip and a carrot, we can not sufficiently motivate a person.

The term motivation is used in modern psychology in a dual sense: as a system of factors that determine behavior (this includes, in particular, needs, motives, goals, intentions, aspirations, and much more) and as a characteristic of the process that stimulates and supports behavioral activity at a certain level . Most often in psychology, motivation is considered as a set of psychological reasons that explain the behavior of a person, his beginning, direction and activity.

It is also considered motivation to consider the process of motivating oneself and others towards activities to achieve the personal goals or goals of their group.

As a synonym for the concept of motivation in management, labor economics, personnel management use the concept of "stimulation". Motive and stimulus are two parallel steps of the same process of motivating activity. Concepts are close in meaning, but not equivalent. First, most often internal motivation (motive) develops into a certain actually performed activity under the influence of external motivation (stimulus). Secondly, if we consider stimulation as an activity activation from the outside, then we can use the concept of "stimulus" as a synonym for the term external motivation as opposed to the concept of "internal motivation."

External motivation is a set of all kinds of incentives in the form of acquisitions, rewards, rewards that we receive from the outside world (in particular, from other people), if we deserve it by our behavior, or punishments, in case our behavior does not meet the requirements and established norms.

Internal motivation is aimed at achieving something that is not offered by any of the people around us, but is required by the person himself. Motivation should be considered internal, if a person enjoys directly from the behavior itself, from the activity itself. For example, it is considered that cognitive motivation, or the desire to acquire new knowledge, is almost exclusively internal and unselfish. It is proved that the student, driven by inner, cognitive motivation, learns much more successfully than he who tries for the sake of evaluation and praise. Psychologists traditionally emphasize the priority of internal motivation over the external, warn that the orientation toward external rewards will negatively affect the results of almost any activity. Such statements are based on the fact that the desire for reward weakens the inner natural impulses.

The American psychologist Stephen Reis comes into conflict with the traditional point of view for psychology and points out the inconsistency of the view that internal motivation is better than external. It also calls into question its very existence.

Flight says: "It's naive to believe that money can not be an effective motivator or that the desire to get a high score does not help the student learn. It's all about individual psychological differences - different people are motivated differently. Not all children are curious about nature, and the parents of such children must understand that they will not be able to change the nature of the child's personality. Apparently, faced with such problems, parents will need to find that external priority incentive, involving which will be able to turn the child "face to face education".

The statement of S. Reis that the internal motivation - an artificially created by psychologists concept, is unlikely to withstand any criticism, but his arguments in defense of external motivation (stimulation) of activities deserve attention, as now, unfortunately, in pedagogy external motivation is not given proper attention.

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