Motivation And Stress In Teamwork Psychology Essay

A team is any group of individuals organised to interact interdependently and cooperatively to meet the needs of what's Before them, by completing a purpose and preparing goals, weather they be on an on field situation or off field situation. (Martens, 1997)

Coaches have many obligations beyond coaching, which include areas of team management and press portrayal, However a coaches main role is to improve a groups performance by focussing on the problems in the team and finding solutions or strategies to help improve the teams overall performance. (Martens, 1997)

The team discussed in this newspaper, has had an effective season, qualifying for institution nationals was a shock to the team, and advanced the team and academic institutions overall self confidence within the activity. Through the entire season, although teams overall performance and results where remarkable. The trainer has identified five problems throughout the team that need to be dealt with to permit the team to perform well at such a high level area as institution nationals.

The five problems discovered by the trainer where





Team cohesion

The players amongst the team are not motivated to participate in the institutions nationals' competition, they feel that they don't are worthy of to be there and they wont perform as well as the other colleges.

Motivation is most beneficial described as the direction and depth of work. (Hodge 1999. ) Path in desire can be referred to as the trend to deal with or avoid a specific situation, directing your team to your targets that you are trying to attain or the reminding players the reason they are participating in that one sport or game. Depth in motivation can refer to the activation of a person on a continuum from low strength to high strength, in other words it's the amount of effort you put into the duty or game. (Hodge 1999. )

There are various kinds of motivation, for example, long-term drive such as commitment to training and practicing skills, short-term drive, such as preparing for the next event or game, extrinsic inspiration such as rewards, trophies and acceptance and Intrinsic drive such as playing for fun, satisfaction, And participating in because you want to. (Hodge 1999. )

One strategy you can use to increase the motivation degrees of the team is goal setting. An objective is thought as to set a certain standard or even to maintain a certain target to achieve what you would like to achieve. There are three types of goals; End result goals give attention to the competitive character of the game e. g. receiving. Performance goals which concentrate on the performers own earlier performance and beating that e. g. if a team came up third in a competition they look at arriving second or third. Process goals focus on the actions taking during the performance to be able to implement the skill. (Hodge 1999. )

Goal environment can help improve desire by motivating the players to prosper, in order to achieve the goal that they establish. The more genuine the target is a lot more determined the players is to achieve it, because they know that they can be able to succeed. This is also called the indirect thought process view. Goals effect performance indirectly by influencing an athlete's psychological state, including self-assurance level and anxiety. Goals lead to changes in psychological factors. (Motivation) which in turn influence performance. (Hodge 1999. )

Goal setting up can be carried out easily to many teams. In this case goal setting techniques can be set in the beginning of workout sessions and prior to the games. Asking players what there anticipations are of the team and how they can perform them is the first rung on the ladder to goal setting. If the objectives are too high, encourage players to set realistic short term goals where can help them achieve there own and the groups expectations. An example of this is, prior to the game players can place a brief term goal of not letting the opposition score a point before half time, if this short-term goal is prosperous they can then make another short-term goal at half time that will cause them to become win the game or be successful within second fifty percent performance. Instructors should implement goal setting techniques right away of the season. Getting players to write down at least one personal long-term goal and one team long-term goal and the same with short-term goals. The team long-term goals and short-term goals should then be distributed among the team so that they can develop ways along on how to accomplish those goals.

The team being talked about in this paper has already established some problems with some of the players stressing prior to the start of the game and throughout the performance of the team through the game.

Stress is best described as a process triggered when the brain intercepts external or internal stimulus and functions them as potentially threatening to the individual. This can impact the mental and physical potential of the players throughout the team. (Harwood, 1998. ) Internal stimuli may include physical or mental irritation and personality qualities, like a need to shoot for excellence or successes or even to please others. Exterior stimuli may include, competing in an important competition or event for the first time, playing before a particular individual or large public and arriving later to a competition and having no time for a full personal warm-up. (Harwood, 1998)

First and most important it is important to determine the foundation of the strain experienced by the individual in the team, weather it be external or internal the source is needed to develop a solution or technique to help the individual cope with the strain. (Devonport, 2008. ) Stress make a difference the spirits and overall self confidence of the players. Expanding coping strategies are important for the players to accomplish optimum concentration and performance throughout the game. There are plenty of coping strategies where coaches can put into practice to improve player stress levels. The first main part of coping is Adaptive coping which include planning, positive reframing, instrumental support, approval and active coping, the second area of coping is named maladaptive coping, which include venting, denial, distraction, and behaviour disengagement. (Devonport, 2008. )

Maladaptive coping is a good way when focusing on a whole groups stress levels. Venting there stress on pre-game warm ups or pre-game rituals like the haka can help distract players from the stimuli that causes their stress and give attention to the overall game that is needed to be played out.

An approach that can be used to aid the mentor and the team pointed out in this paper, is the cognitive behavior methodology. (Harwood, 1998. )

Cognitive behaviour approach is based across the maladaptive emotions and how behaviours are inspired by individual's values, attitudes and perceptions. E. g. a player feels it is impossible to defeat an undefeated team, change the player's perception and tell them of the positives of their own team and how anything can happen if indeed they play well.

(Harwood, 1998. )

These coping strategies can be executed at the start of every match and at the start of pre-season training. Putting into action strategies and informing players how to cope with stress in the beginning of the season during workout sessions, will enhance the teams overall season performance because players will understand how develop there own ways of coping with stress, weather that be a maladaptive procedure or a adaptive strategy.

Although the team portrayed in this paper suggest that confidence levels should be high, a lot of the players have a lack in self-confidence and assume that they themselves are weighing or might weigh the team down in the institution nationals.

Confidence is the trust and perception in your own personal that you is capable of doing or execute a specific skill or circumstance in virtually any given situation. (Hodge, 1999) Self-assurance arouses positive thoughts, Facilitates concentration, affects goals (pursue goals) increases work, Affects game strategies and influences a positive relationship with performance. (Weinberg & Gould, 2007) Without assurance it is vary unusual that the players or team will attain the goals they have set at the start of the match or season.

A strategy that can be used to improve or restore confidence within person players and the team is self-talk. Self-talk may be referred to as conscious thinking, or as inner assertions that are self said intentionally. (Hodge 1999) Personal talk affects your feelings which then affects your behavior. Your level of self converse is linked to a players self-confidence. In the event the players visualize themselves achieving success, they then concentrate on positive things and efficiently performing the duty, rather then worrying about performing badly (Hodge 1999). In the event the player is worried about performing badly, then your use of self-talk can be used to help boost the confidence of this players thoughts. For example if the gamer self talks to themselves about the way he wants to effectively perform the skill, he'll then have the self confidence within himself to effectively perform that skill in the game or event situation.

This theory is effective for the team portrayed in this paper, the teams self-confidence level is low so they obviously will start thinking about negative situations that might occur through the game or event. Expecting something to happen actually helps cause it to happen. (Hodge 1999)

The expectations instructors' form about the power of individual sports athletes can provide as either a negative or positive impact that determines the amount of achievement each sportsman will finally reach. So in case a instructor was to positively reinforce he's athletes and encourage them to achieve success, the likelihood of the players motivating themselves and other teammates with motivational words and sayings of personal talk will eventually increase the team and athletes overall performance.

Self-talk can be put in place at the start of the season in pre-season training. Informing players of how to work with self conversation in situations which could boost there confidence at the beginning of the growing season will help players learn how to increase there own confidence before a game. This will make it easier for the trainer during training sessions and before video games to help players feel more confident about themselves and the duty that they need to perform.

The team displayed in this newspaper are good at focusing on the game in demanding situations, however when there is a audience of more then twenty people, the pressure for them to succeed becomes mind-boggling and the attention degrees of certain individuals amidst the team are infected.

Concentration, or the capability to focus on an activity accessible while ignoring distractions is a essential part of success for most athletes and groups whilst contending in video games and situations. (Moran, 2009)

Mental rehearsal is a method useful in producing the internal sport training skills of ideal physical activation and best attention and attentiveness. This strategy can be used to organise a constant and systematic psych up period before the game or event. The purpose of mental rehearsal is to help sports athletes consistently reach an ideal performance and talk about of ideal activation and readiness. (Hodge 1999)

Distractions can take form in two aspects, exterior and inner. The exterior factor that is affecting the team symbolized in this paper is the audience and spectators. If at the start of every match or weekly prior to the big performance players learn to rehearse their particular event or game with a audience, the more likely they are to become less distracted by the audience when competing. For example if a player was to mentally rehearse a successful penalty goal before a massive masses of people, the more chance that player would stay concentrated and focused on that process if it was to happen in an genuine game situation. One theoretical principal of attentiveness that support mental rehearsal as a strategy suggest that sportsmen have to decided to concentrate; it generally does not happen by chance. (Moran, 2009)

This suggest that in order for players to focus throughout the whole start to finish of the overall game, they need to start concentrating before the game has actually started, thus supporting that mental rehearsal enhances attention because it allows players to give attention to the overall game or event before the genuine performance.

Mental rehearsal should be executed at the start of the season in pre season training. In order that players develop a routine on psychologically setting up themselves for an event or game situation. Mental rehearsal at such a early start of season can increase player awareness by up to 30%. (Hodges 1999)

Coaches should execute mental rehearsals techniques and skills by finding a sport psychologist at the start of the growing season to help the team emotionally prepare for the future season. Mentors can also put into action mental rehearsal by the end of each training session revealing players to focus on a specific skill they learned and mentally practice it prior to the up coming game.

Throughout the growing season players have seem to putting other players down, when things fail or not trusting certain players on performing particular skills through the event.

Team cohesion can be explained as the ever changing process, which is shown in the predisposition for a group to stick to together and remain unified in the goal of completing an activity or executing a effectively in a game or event.

There are two types of team cohesions; Job Cohesion is the amount to which members of the team, interact to achieve a specific goal. And Friendly Cohesion is the amount to that your members of any team like the other person and revel in personal contentment from being participants of the team (Weinberg & Gould, 2007)

A good strategy that can be used to improve team cohesion is Team building. Team building will involve a number of trust video games and group activities that will allow the team to access know one another and connection.

Team Building was designed to increase team togetherness and bonding so that players can feel like a team, cohesiveness was used to permit the team to operate and communicate collectively more efficiently. (Weinberg & Gould, 2007)

Team building allows for players to get to know one another and form a marriage with the other team mates and coaches, it allows players to feel comfortable for the team and instructor they are playing for. Types of team building game titles include, trust fall, blind folded video games, communication games and any activity involving the team to work together.

Although the team has prevailed throughout most of the season, the following strategies in conjunction with good instruction should allow for most of the problems found amongst the team to improve. The strategies used throughout this newspaper are strategies used by sport psychologists and are proven to change lives in research and current studies on elite teams and runners.


Carron, A. V. , Eys, M. A. , & Burke, S. M. (2007). Teach cohesion: Characteristics, correlates,

and development. In S. Jowett, & D. Lavallee (Eds. ), Public mindset in sport

(pp. 91-101). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Devonport, T. (2008). Stress and coping among competitive runners in sport. WITHIN A. Lane (Ed. ), Sport and exercise psychology (pp. 73-90). London: Hodder Education.

Harwood, C. (1998) handling pressure; the national coaching foundation, Leeds

Martens, R. (1997) successful coaching; The American sport education program and the nationwide federation interscholastic coaches relationship, (pp. 135-137)

Moran, A. P. (2009). Attention, focus and thought management. In B. W.

Brewer (Ed. ), Sport mindset (pp. 18-29). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell

Weinsberg, R. S. , & Gould, D. (2007). Goal setting techniques. In Foundations of sport and

exercise pscyhology (pp. 346-364). Champaign, IL: Individuals Kinetics.


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