Motivation for adult education
One of the most important factors in organizing a corporate training system is the formation, maintenance and preservation of the educational motivation of adult learners. As practice shows, the existence of a formed stable and conscious motivation is the most important condition for the effectiveness of training. At the same time, the most significant shift in the development of educational motivation occurs in the process of making a decision about the need for training. It is at this stage that the motivational orientation that influences the entire further process of choosing the content and form of instruction is determined. Actually, educational activity affects the enrichment and development of motivation to a lesser extent. In this connection, it is necessary to elaborate on the analysis of the educational needs and motives of the learning adults, on the determination of what motivates the professional in the decision-making process of the need for additional training.
Under educational needs in the context of the organization of the corporate training system is understood that subjective necessity that can be met through additional vocational education, training, etc., e. those kinds of training that can enter into the system of corporate education. Their specificity is that the source of their formation can be binary. Educational needs can come from both the subject of work (directly professional), lacking one's own competence in something, and from the organization in which he works. Summarizing the results of our studies, as well as the literature presented in the literature, we can determine the following list of educational needs that are most often encountered in the process of implementing projects of in-house training in modern enterprises and organizations:
1) increase of one's own professional competence as a leader, organizer, specialist, etc .;
2) acquiring theoretical and practical knowledge, deepening knowledge of the specialty;
3) the acquisition of new, potentially useful in practice knowledge;
4) application of the knowledge gained in practice;
5) a qualitative change in the content of work in the direction of strengthening the organizational and management components;
6) increase in the result of training their professional reputation and prestige among colleagues;
7) establishing new business contacts;
8) deepening of professional specialization;
9) preservation and enhancement of material well-being;
10) the desire to change the sphere of activity, the place of work, the search for a new more interesting, highly paid work;
11) personal growth, the possibility of self-analysis.
In this list, we can distinguish four groups of educational needs: the acquisition of various types of competence, obtaining special knowledge, changing professional status, preserving and developing material and household factors.
In addition to the general content of educational needs, it is important that they be specified in detail, in the process of which the content of the knowledge, skills, competencies required for the subject is detailed. Based on the results of this work, a direct training program is defined (a list of studied disciplines, passable seminars and trainings, as well as their direct content). Thus, when organizing a corporate training system, it is extremely important to identify the educational needs of the organization (or its departments) as a whole, as well as specific employees.
The most important question of identifying the educational needs of the organization's employees is the definition of methods for their diagnosis. As such methods, we propose to use questionnaires and interviews. The latter is preferable to apply in cases where it is a question of training individual specialists or heads of the organization. In the case of general retraining of the employees of the organization or its subdivision, a more economical and informative method is the questioning of personnel.
As a result of the research, a list of educational motives, most often found in the practice of organizing corporate training for managers and specialists, was compiled.
The motive for obtaining approval and the desire to accept. This motive has a pronounced external character. It is peculiar to people who prefer in their professional activities, decision-making and evaluation of the results of work to be guided by the opinion of other people - leadership, colleagues, etc. (external type of reference). Carriers of this motive initiate learning in order to receive recognition and approval (primarily from significant others) and, as a consequence, to have the opportunity of career growth and increase their material well-being.
Fear of rejection. The development of this motive is associated with the fear of losing a stable position in the organization. In this case, training is considered by man not as an opportunity for self-development, but as a way of preserving existing achievements. Often this motive is typical for students with a dominant descending career development.
The motive of power. People who have a high degree of expression of this motive, seek power, and as one of the means to achieve it, consider learning. From the point of view of personal qualities, they are characterized by vigor, frankness in expressing thoughts and feelings, are not afraid of confrontation and are confidently defending their positions. They demand to themselves the attention of others and strive for leadership.The cognitive motive. The cognitive motive is based on the general cognitive need of a person, which actively develops already in childhood and determines the person's desire to learn a new, unknown in this case professional sphere.
An adversarial motive. This motive determines a person's desire to be better than others. In this case, it does not necessarily mean that there is a real competition. A person with a pronounced adversarial motive is important to obtain confirmation of his own rating and professional position not only from others, but also in his own eyes.
The motive for success. The motive for success in this case is more to do not with the proclamation of the desire for success, but with real bringing the work to a successful conclusion, a definite end. In building their career, people who are successful, have a moderate desire for risk, gradually go to the intended goal, achieving visible results. Training is considered by them as one of the means of achieving success.
The motive for the significance of the results. People who have a strong motive for the significance of the result are not so much focused on the process as on the final result of the work. They can achieve a lot, but they are not inclined to follow the rules and standards that regulate the performance of work. In training, for them, the result obtained is also more significant, which, however, can be both internal (knowledge, skills, and skills obtained during the training) and external (diploma, certificate).
The motive for increasing the complexity of tasks, the orientation to the process. To some extent, this motive is the opposite of the previous one. For its carriers, the process of performing the work is more important than the result achieved. They enjoy the work itself, even if it does not have the capacity to actually measure achievements. At the same time, process-oriented employees tend to comply with all the requirements for the progress of work with a high degree of accuracy. In the course of training, they carefully approach all the necessary tasks, but if these tasks cease to be interesting and meaningful in a personal and professional sense, they can interrupt the training before graduation.
The motive of involvement. This motive is formed under the influence of the desire to be included in a certain social and professional environment, a high need for communication. For a person who has a high degree of expressiveness of the motive of involvement, membership in this organization is important, he seeks to participate in all of its affairs, is characterized by a high degree of loyalty.
Self-esteem and development of personal potential, motive for personal understanding of work. The development of this motive is associated with a high desire for self-improvement and personal development, including in the professional sphere. For such workers, the personal importance of the work is important, they are striving to fulfill complex, interesting, "challenging" professional assignments. Training is seen by them as an opportunity to realize themselves, to achieve more in their field and in their organization.
It should be noted that regardless of the degree of orientation of the employee to receive education, the educational motivation of employees requires special supporting measures at the level of the organization. To create and maintain the optimal level of educational motivation, it is necessary to consistently implement two steps.
1. To find out the level and content characteristics of motivation for the educational activity of the workers of the organization, i.e. which is the reason for teaching each individual. This can be done through interviews, questionnaires or using special tests. In view of the identified motivational features, the training program is subsequently built, if the motivation for training is unsatisfactory, a transition to the next step is necessary.
2. Creating an adequate motivation for the learning process. In this case, at the first stage of its formation, external positive motivation is given (motivation that has a character external to the activity), which in the process of learning is translated (with the help of the teacher) into internal forms.
Educational motivation can also be formed directly in the learning process. Even if a person outside his desire is involved in the learning process, the educational activity, with adequate organization and availability of correspondence with the professional and personal needs of the employee, can cause the student's interest and, accordingly, motivation for its implementation. Nevertheless, for the formation of adequate educational motivation, employees need to ensure a number of organizational conditions. These include the following:
1. Formation of the appropriate type of organizational culture that supports the aspiration of the employee to learn, maintain and enhance his own professional competence.
2. It is necessary that the leader himself is a model of a person who constantly strives for self-improvement and professional development. The mechanism of action of this condition is based on one of the basic psychological laws - the law of social learning. Its principle is that a person learns various forms of social behavior by observing and assimilating the standards of behavior of those people who are the most important for him. Identifying with a significant other, the subject copies various patterns of his behavior. It is understood that in the organization such a significant other is its leader. Being, if possible, a model for his subordinates, he, thus, carries out the decision of tasks on formation of educational motivation at employees of the organization.
3. An employee who has completed training must feel tangible results (both in terms of material benefits, and in terms of job growth and the content of professional assignments). It is also important that these results are visible from the outside. The current trend in the development of small business organizations is that it is more advantageous to staff the staff in the development process of the organization not by attracting workers from outside but by using internal reserves of the organization ("internal hiring"), In this regard, the implementation of professional promotion of employees based on the learning outcomes is a priority for the development of the organization.
4. Informing employees about the prospects for the development of the organization. Involving employees in setting goals for the activities of structural units and the organization as a whole. Use of targeted and participative methods in building a system of motivation in the organization.
5. Development of innovative activities. Involving employees in the implementation of innovative projects, impulse
giving a person to personal and professional development, the way to achieve which is corporate learning.
6. When determining the plan and the types of work performed, it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of the employee: the level of his abilities and professional competence, individual standards of achievement, etc. When assigning jobs, entrust an employee with tasks that are on the verge of his professional capabilities or slightly exceed them. Using this method allows you to provoke the formation of the need for training and professional competence.
7. Expansion of the range of types and forms of non-material encouragement of employees. Definition of training as one of the types of non-material encouragement.
8. Expansion of the circle of professional contacts and contacts of employees. Creation of opportunities for the exchange of experience and familiarization with the work of similar organizations. The allocation in their activities of new, promising ideas and development trends, encouraging employees to implement them in the practice of their organization.
It is important to avenge that the educational motivation of an adult is not stable, once and for all formed by education. In the presence of an adequate organizational environment, it can develop, providing a high level of educational activity of the subject of professional activity in the learning process.
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