Motivational sphere of personality
After studying this chapter, the student must:
• what is the problem of personality;
• Reality that explains through the concept of identity or denoted by this term;
• hypothesis about the personality criteria;
• the conditions for the birth of an individual;
be able to
• Analyze the concept of identity & quot ;;
• To argue the authenticity of ideas about the person;
• skill in determining the levels of human functioning.
Personality begins with dedication.
M. Yu. Lermontov
During the autumn flight of birds, domestic ducks for a moment become migratory birds.
And in December, not every Decembrist.
Personality Problem in Psychology
In this chapter, we begin to discuss the problem of personality. You probably wonder why the problem, not the topic. Of course, you will say, there are tasks of studying the personality, because not everything is explored and understood, but why the problem?
The problem is precisely that we widely use this concept, we study personality, we write treatises on the development and structure of personality, but as soon as you ask a simple question: "What is an individual?", you get either an infinite number of definitions of personality, or silence. We have already encountered such a situation when we discussed the problem of consciousness. Let us also try to cite the criteria of personality here, following the principles of scientific classification. We will not raise questions yet: how the personality is structured, how it functions, why and how it develops - we simply try to give the personality criteria to understand where the person is and where it is not. Let's try to at least give a phenomenological description of this reality: what is it, what are we dealing with? Note that this is not a dispute that there is a person (remember the definition of "creature on two legs and without feathers"), which can be shown with a finger, and this desire to see, highlight that reality, which is called the "person" and which can then be investigated. Otherwise, we get a strange picture when we study something that we can not describe and can not specify and identify the criteria for its availability.
However, there is no shortage of definitions of personality, of course. In hundreds of books about the person you will always meet the words of the authors: "I believe that the person is ...". There are no descriptions of the person, there are no criteria, but the definitions are complete. At the same time, almost everyone is sure, and you, probably, too, that the personality as a reality exists and it must be investigated, having previously guessed what it is. Note that the dispute is not about the features of this reality (personality) and not about its properties and performance characteristics, they are arguing exactly about what kind of reality (if any) is called a personality. That's what makes up the personality problem.
In fact, this problem does not exist for everyone. For most philosophers, sociologists, and part of psychologists, there is no problem associated with the concept of personality, because by personality they understand man as a social being. With this approach, the term personality becomes the convenient name of a person as a social individual (subject of social relations), who decides social tasks in terms of content and acquires necessary qualities and capabilities for this activity.
"As a person, a person acts as a" unit "in the system of social relations, as the real bearer of these relations. This is the positive core of the point of view that claims that the concept of personality is a social category, and not a psychological category, "indicates SL Rubinshtein.
But not only the concept of "personality", but itself "... personality as a whole is not a psychological entity and can not be, therefore only the subject of psychology". The formation of a person as an individual, with such an understanding of it, is the process of the emergence of man as a social being, subject of social relations, and therefore, as SL Rubinshtein further says, psychology investigates personality because "there is no personality without the psyche, moreover, unconscious. "
There is no personal problem for researchers who define it as a person with a set of natural and social qualities (sometimes they are spoken about innate and acquired qualities, sometimes only about psychological ones) or who understand the personality as a set of different qualities or some kind of mental formations (motives, meanings). This set of qualities (common to all people, special for certain groups and unique to a particular person) creates a unique integrity of a person, which should be investigated as a person. This often does not clarify whether the concept of personality all genetically assigned qualities (for example, hair and eye color, type of nervous system, morphological features of a person, etc.) or just some, and which ones? Will all the acquired qualities and capabilities of a person characterize him as a person (for example, knowledge and skills of a person)? And if the only sign of personality is a set of assigned and acquired qualities, then what about animals that can also be given such a set? Of course, the uniqueness of each person deserves its own name and the term personality is quite suitable for referring to this reality. According to this criterion of personality, animals of many species should also be considered as individuals, because they also have a set of innate and acquired qualities, which not everyone can agree with. In this case, it is necessary to introduce other concepts to explain the characteristics of a person that go beyond its uniqueness.
The concept of identity It is used in psychology as one of the main categories, although psychologists can not give a description of the personality and give the criteria for its isolation as a special reality. This means that this concept is introduced in psychology as a theoretical construct, with the help of which specialists try to explain something in the behavior and psyche of a person.
Such a situation requires a solution to the question of which concept personality it is necessary to accept in psychology: whether to use this concept as a convenient name for a person as a social being, a subject of social relations or to introduce one's own psychological concept? Judging by the number of attempts by psychologists to create their own theory of personality, psychology would like to have its own concept. But for this, it must justify the necessity (if it is) of this concept, highlighting those realities of human behavior and psyche that can not be explained without the notion of a person, i.e. using only such concepts as organism & quot ;, biological entity & quot ;, subject of natural relationships (natural individual), public relations entity (a social individual).
Solving the question of the need for the concept of "identity" it is necessary to look for in the selection of those realities that psychologists tried to designate or explain by this concept, or which fit well, in their opinion, into its content. After this, you can agree on whether to apply this concept as a psychological one or not and, if so, what content to invest in it. That is, first we must analyze all the realities that different researchers associate with the concept of "personality" and only then agree on what reality and why we will call it and what criteria we will use to determine its availability.
We should not proceed from the fact that a person has a personality or he himself becomes a person, and our task is to guess what it is. We must understand another thing - why this concept was introduced in psychology, and only after that it is possible to give a description of the reality that we will denote by this term, and to explore it as a reality. And so our first task is to describe the realities that compel psychology to introduce the concept of "personality" to explain them, or to show that there is no need for such a concept for psychology (whether philosophy and sociology accept such a psychological understanding of the individual is the task of the indicated sciences).
That is why we will not follow the tradition of a monographic presentation of ideas about a person when the "right" is first given " author's definition, and then from these positions all other ideas about the individual are evaluated. We note only once again three different ways of introducing the concept of "personality" in different sciences:
a) as a synonym for the concept of "social subject" or "subject of social (social) relations", i.e. as a new convenient term;
b) as the name of a particular reality to be investigated, namely a set of different qualities that make a person a unique being;
c) as a theoretical construct with the help of which something is explained.
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