Mythology of the profession psychologist
Psychological practice in the modern public consciousness is popular and attractive. If earlier some funny pseudo-news started with the words "English scientists have discovered ...", now they say: "As psychologists say ...". Psychologists are fashionable to invite as experts on television shows, and it does not matter what is being discussed: the life of disabled people or where to go on vacation; in films, wealthy people necessarily go to talk about their experiences with a psychologist. Young people, choosing a profession of a psychologist, often have very little idea of what they will do, focusing only on the images of psychologists in the media, films, popular literature.
With our psychologist on the pages of magazines and television screens, our compatriots face more often than in life. And it is not surprising that the replicable image in the minds of people dominates. It's not even that he supersedes reality, but that there is simply nothing to displace - the true image does not even have time to form. Instead of him, another simulacrum appears, a kind of virtual psychologist who answers readily for candid and secret questions, who gives advice and invariably picks up a couple of entertaining questionnaires, invariably calling them tests and adoring all sorts of typologies (MN Sartan).
And when a client, brought up by popular media, turns to a professional psychologist, there is a "skip", a misunderstanding. The client expects from the psychologist a medicine, a magic key, a tip that he is used to getting in the pages of a favorite magazine, and the psychologist expects from the client serious work on himself, which is necessary to achieve a real result. Very often the parties part, dissatisfied with each other. Another consequence of such expectations is the fear of contacts with a psychologist who turns out to be an omniscient expert, a teacher-guru or an analog of a shaman-leader in the representations of people. A mixture of interest and fear of the client makes joint work unproductive.
Let us dwell on the mythology of the psychologist in more detail. This is very important, because it is these myths that form not only clients, but also the motivation for choosing the profession of students of psychological faculties.
In social networks, virtual reality, where spontaneous psychological support for each other's young people takes place, the funny name of the mythological image of the psychologist - "tyzhpsiholog" - spread. Consider what myths and expectations are associated with this image.
1. Psychology is a science that knows everything about a person and his soul, and a psychologist who has mastered this science is a telepath who sees people through and through. He is so perceptive that he is able to read minds. Including those people whom I have never seen before.
2. A psychologist is a person endowed with a special ability to communicate with others and understanding others. Tysopsiholog can convince anyone in anything.
3. A psychologist is a person who is able to control the behavior, feelings, thoughts of others, specially trained and owning appropriate techniques (for example, hypnosis). Therefore, psychologists need to be afraid.
4. A psychologist is a person who knows himself fully and owns himself in all circumstances. Psychology everyone is completely happy, all adored and successful. Especially in my personal life. They generally do not need anything for themselves, it remains only to bestow humanity.
5. A psychologist is a sage who knows more about life than others, and his mission is to point the true way to the suffering, entangled people with advice and instruction. He knows the best way to solve any problem associated with any person. And most importantly, any person will like this method.
6. The work of a psychologist is to give advice. This, in fact, is his main purpose - he must know what is better for others.
7. The very fact of the existence and professionalism of psychologists obliges them to be responsible for anyone who appealed to them (even in the sense of just talking). Responsibility for his feelings, first. For and for well-being in general, of course, too.
8. Practically every psychologist is not real. Charlatans are around! Therefore, "I saw a Shaolin monk - hit Shaolin monk". The psychologist is in great need of checking his professionalism. Here it should be fairly noted that the doctor sometimes risks, introducing himself by profession, immediately go to listen to complaints about health.
Myths do not arise from scratch. As stated above, psychological practice is the "heiress" cultural spiritual practices of esoteric and religious, therefore in the minds of ordinary people the image of a psychologist is very close to the image of a fortuneteller, a sorcerer. Hence the fear, unrealistic expectations.
Let's look at these myths more closely.
1. Psychology - is a science that knows everything about a person and his soul, and a psychologist who has mastered this science is a telepath who sees people through and through. He is so perceptive that he is able to read minds. Including those people who have never been seen at all.
Indeed, the term psychology means "the science of the soul", "the doctrine of the soul" or, if you prefer, "psychology". However, no absolutely complete knowledge of the soul (as, indeed, of other objects) is fundamentally impossible - only a movement towards this knowledge is possible. Meanwhile, the soul, which - unlike objects and phenomena of nature - can not be directly seen, felt, measured, is especially difficult to study, so that, as they say, Albert Einstein, having met and talked with the great Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, exclaimed : "How simple is what I do, compared to what you do!". According to other versions, his words sounded like this: "Theoretical physics is a child's play compared to the mysteries of children's play!". Another option: "God, how much psychology is more complex than physics!".
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Jean Piaget (French Jean Hager) - is a Swiss psychologist, creator of one of the most authoritative theories of the child's intellectual development. Founder of the Geneva School of Genetic Psychology.
Yes, the knowledge accumulated by psychology is rich and diverse, but far from exhaustive and often contradictory. In the future you will see that there are many psychological theories (if you like - many psychologies), and therefore you do not need to wait from the psychology of "last resort truth". You are inevitably waiting for doubt and a search for what, you will agree, is not bad, if you do not strive for passive learning, but for creative development.
As for the psychologist's insight - do not exaggerate it. However, he can really see much more than most of those who are not engaged in psychology - as a psychologist specially reflects on it, it explores and works with it; something can better tell - because "knows the psychological words", with the help of which it is possible to designate certain events related to the world of psychic phenomena. But remember that any opinion is probabilistic. A psychologist who categorically asserts that he "is clear" concerning a particular person or event, is either unprofessional or unchangeable, or "works for the public" - the blessing, by virtue of the discussed myth, there are plenty of such possibilities.
2. Psychologist - a person who by nature is endowed with special abilities to communicate with others and understand others. Thypsychologist can convince anyone in anything.Generally speaking, the question of who is endowed with nature, and what is acquired during life (educated) is a question, sorry for the banal, complex. Indeed, we can talk about the natural (innate) component of many individual characteristics of a person, for example, the properties of the nervous system that are directly manifested in the speed of movement, fatigue, etc. There are certainly natural prerequisites for communication and influence over other people, but these abilities are related to social and manifest themselves in full only in adolescence, and even in adolescence. The aforementioned makes it possible to be sure that these abilities develop in the course of the practice of communication and interaction with other people.
In any case, among practical psychologists - including outstanding, recognized at the world level - people are very diverse in their "natural data", the ability to communicate. As historians of psychology joke, the psychoanalyst chair is behind the client's couch, on the one hand, so as not to interfere with the client's speaking, on the other - because the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, was a very shy person. And the founder of Ericksonian hypnosis Milton Eriksson had a very monotonous and deaf voice.
Another conversation that it is really important for a practical psychologist to possess certain abilities, but - with rare exceptions (some cases of pathology are meant) - it is not a question of "innate disability". Ability to communicate and understand others (sometimes it is called "competence in communication") can and should be developed, for which, by the way, there are appropriate psychological methods.
Concerning the ability to convince: in fact, psychologists rarely convince someone of anything. They treat with respect and interest the values and beliefs of the other person; their task is to accompany the client, and not to persuade and not to impose their point of view. They always have more questions than answers. Undoubtedly, psychologists are able to identify the initial needs and attitudes of the interlocutor in the process of communication - this understanding makes it possible to better build a system of persuasion of the interlocutor, but still the identity of the other remains the leading value, even if this person has irrational belief-blocking activities.
3. Psychologist - A person who is able to control the behavior, feelings, thoughts of others, specially trained and owning appropriate techniques (for example, hypnosis). Therefore, psychologists need to be afraid.
"It's frightening when a person can have such great power over another: it's worthwhile to distract yourself, think about and get into your mind an espionage thought from a psychologist" - this is how teenagers think about the possibilities of a psychologist. Adolescents have a research passion - to go to the limits of the possible in itself, experimenting with their own states of consciousness. A person capable of changing the state of consciousness of another, immersed in a hypnotic sleep, a trance state, causes intense curiosity and fear, like a shaman or sorcerer. In fact, psychologists should not be afraid of more than representatives of other professions.
Indeed, a practical psychologist has some ways of influencing the behavior of others. By and large, all psychotechnics, which are used by the psychologist of education in the process of psychological support for the development of the personality of the student and the teacher, are ways of influencing, controlling behavior. Among them there are simple ones (the ability to ask clarifying questions and listen to the answer), and more complex ones that require special and prolonged training (Erichonian hypnosis, relaxation, directed imagination in symbolic drama, or directing the symptom in understanding psychotherapy).
There is even a whole applied direction, developed on the basis of Ericksonian hypnosis and having a dubious reputation among practical psychologists, - neurolinguistic programming, which is fixed on the management of another person in communication. Characteristically, psychologists who preach the importance of owning techniques of this kind often use terminology from the arsenal of the military or fighters, seeing in the other necessarily an adversary to be defeated - however, most often covering the ego with more humane masks.
But there are three undeniable facts, due to which the psychologist will not use this arsenal without the consent of the client, the communication partner. First, controlling the behavior of another person in addition to his will (using manipulation) destroys the relationship, makes the working alliance impossible and, accordingly, the provision of psychological assistance to the client, and even simple friendly communication. Secondly, the desire for power over the client contradicts the professional ethics of the psychologist. A terrible option, when a psychologist revels in power over another, indicates a lack of personal maturity and, accordingly, a low level of professionalism. Other, also unacceptable, options - when the influence on the other is used for selfish and pragmatic purposes. Even the word client assumes that the psychologist is working on his order & quot ;, in the situation of the previously adopted joint goals and objectives. By itself, controlling behavior is not an end in itself. And thirdly, no way of influence will be effective if the person is critical. Even in a state of deep trance, a person will not do anything that would contradict his moral and moral ideas and norms.
4. Psychologist - A person who knows himself fully and owns himself in any circumstances. Thypsychologists All are completely happy, all adored and successful. Especially in my personal life. They generally do not need anything for themselves, it remains only to bestow humanity.
Know yourself until the end is impossible. A person who claims to have known himself completely, is mistaken or pretends to be. But the desire for self-knowledge, the desire to reach "to the roots, to the roots, to the core" for psychologists is really characteristic (but, we note, not for all psychologists and not only for psychologists). In any case, often - and, from our point of view, rightly - they say that a practical psychologist should be personally studied, i.e. must know their own aspirations, values, weaknesses, etc., so that in working with another person it is not up to them to solve their own unconscious problems, namely, to help another (client).
Remember the movie Stalker Andrei Tarkovsky and the brothers Arkady and Boris Strugatsky (by the way, we strongly advise to see it for all current or future psychologists who have not done so yet): The zone fulfills the desires - but not the declared ones, but only the true ones, and one of the heroes - the Writer - does not make the decisive one step, because he understands that he does not know what he really wants.
Stalker - a fantastic film, filmed in the studio "Mosfilm" in the USSR in 1979 on the motives of the novel "Picnic on the Roadside" Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. One of the most significant works in the work of Andrei Tarkovsky, who said that in it he "legally touched the transcendental".
Similarly, a psychologist who does not recognize himself in his aspirations, which he considers unworthy (for example, in a hidden need for power) will, without noticing, try to satisfy them, and the victim will be the client. As for owning yourself in any situation - in psychology, some methods of self-regulation have been developed, and owning them (not necessarily a psychologist) really behaves more confidently in difficult situations. In addition, the psychologist, professionally knowing, for example, the essence of conflicts of various types and ways of preventing them and productive resolution, is more prepared for adequate behavior in such cases. But in any absolutely situation no one is able to control himself fully.Often, clients expect that a psychologist can help only if he is happy, adored and successful, especially in his personal life. Indeed, how will the relationship in the client's family be adjusted by a psychologist who experiences the situation divorce or alone? Can a psychologist help himself to deal with the difficulties of organizing time?
We need to pay attention to two circumstances: every living person has difficulties and problems and the psychologist has experience of experiencing difficult life situations that allows him to be more effective in helping the client. Subjective psychological reality is not a structure, but a process (a stream of experiences) of constant changes, constant development. Discovering internal impossibilities in different life situations and coping with them - an indispensable component of the life of every psychologically competent person, and it does not always require professional help from a psychologist. People turn to a psychologist when they can not figure out what the causes of their difficulties are, and when they understand the reasons, they can not change anything by themselves.
Rollo May writes: "I want to suggest that we treat other people with our own wounds. Psychologists who become psychotherapists, as well as psychiatrists, are people who, as children, should become therapists of their own families. This is pretty well established by various teachings. And I propose to develop this idea and assume that the insight that comes to us through our own struggle with our problems leads us to develop empathy and creativity in relation to others ... and compassion ...
Rollo May (1909-1994)
Rolla Reece May is a famous American existential psychologist and psychotherapist. In his works, he carefully examines the main problems of human existence, concerning good and evil, freedom, responsibility and destiny, creativity, guilt and anxiety, love and violence.
It can be concluded that only a difficult life filled with different complex situations makes a psychologist really professional. It is no accident that psychologists-consultants who have the right to private practice without supervisor supervision become people only after 30 years. It is not by chance that the most effective, accompanied by adolescents, are psychologists who, during adolescence, were themselves "difficult." Only a wounded healer, according to R. May, can deeply understand and empathize with a person with the same or similar problem. But the psychologist will be effective under one important condition: he must have the experience of a productive experience of his wounds & quot ;. Only when a person goes on his way to recovery, meaning, he is able to show this way to another.
5. A psychologist is a sage who knows more about life than others, and his mission - to indicate the true path to the suffering, entangled people with advice and guidance. He knows the best way to solve any problem associated with any person. And most importantly, any person will like this method.
As with the rest of the people, there are wise and not too many psychologists, but that's not the issue. This is another temptation - the role of the Great Teacher, the Messiah, the Shepherd, the Guru - the temptation, all the more tempting, that many who come for help are ready to acknowledge this in the psychologist. Of course, there are psychologists who pretend to be such a role - as there are generally enough people who believe that they are the ones who know the main truths of life and are called (or even dragged) by themselves, believing that they "know how to". But if someone knows the truth, then only He Who is Higher, and self-deification is probably only a manifestation of petty pride and unsatisfied self-esteem. A psychologist is not a priest and does not have the right to speak from God's name; he does not have the right to impose his own way and his own worldview, he can only try to help another see his own - the other - the way or his opportunity.
Working together with a psychologist is not a pleasant pleasure, this work on yourself is difficult, requiring the overcoming of internal barriers. It requires a certain courage from the person (client) to meet with their "dragons", heavy memories, dramatic relationships, to understand their role in these difficulties, to see themselves through the eyes of another person. It is no accident that in the mythological epics the most terrible test of the hero was a meeting with himself. Therefore, we should not expect that the ways that a person will resort to together with a psychologist will be simple and easy.
6. The work of a psychologist - give advice. This, in fact, is his main purpose - he must know what is better for others.
Psychologists have several commandments that relate to professional ethics, one of them is not to give advice. There is a saying: advice is given to carry them out. The client often comes to a psychologist with a huge "suitcase" advice of friends, relatives, television experts, etc. While waiting and sometimes demanding advice from a psychologist, the client agrees with him only if this advice coincides with his own internal decision. Following this advice, the client takes all responsibility for the consequences to the person who gave it. If the result is disappointing - the expert psychologist immediately falls from the pedestal (see the next myth). When giving advice, the psychologist falls into the trap client, loses equality in working relations. But the most surprising discovery that occurs in the process of teamwork is that a person discovers in himself the ability to independently make important decisions in his life and take responsibility for them. But this is really difficult when there is nobody to blame for your mistakes, only yourself.
7. The fact of the existence and professionalism of psychologists is washing them to be responsible for anyone who turned to them (even in the sense of just talking). Responsibility for his feelings first. But for well-being in general, of course, too.
We have already said about responsibility: every person is responsible for his life and for his feelings himself, and first of all. Often, beginning psychologists are eager to help anyone who seeks help, and even those who do not. But this is a very dangerous path: "to do good"; another person - the desire is not the best. The desire to ease the life of another person, to relieve him of difficulties sometimes means to prevent a person from making his life meaningful, experiencing a difficult situation, changing blocking beliefs or behavioral reactions, and generally hampering his personal development. There is one more important aspect: the desire to help another without his desire is often a consequence of his own personal immaturity. Only the ability to take care of yourself is the basis of the ability to truly care for another. Therefore, another popular statement from psychologists: "no request - no therapy."
8. Almost every psychologist - is not real. Charlatans are around! Therefore, "saw the Shaolin monk - hit the Shaolin monk". The psychologist is in great need of checking his professionalism. Here it should be fairly noted that the doctor sometimes risks, introducing himself by profession, immediately go to listen to complaints.
All incomprehensible is always scary, and fear causes hostility. People's desire to "catch" psychologist on the error, on the fact that the general psychological patterns do not correspond to personal experience, is the consequence of this fear. Psychology refers to the type of scientific knowledge that can be checked immediately on the experience and experience of others. And the surprising fact of this knowledge is that each person is unique, unlike others (his life experience, experiences, personal characteristics), and at the same time everyone can see the action of general psychological regularities. The truth of psychological knowledge sometimes depends on which aspect of the experience to focus on - general or individual.
There is a public opinion that every person with a rich life experience is essentially a practical psychologist. When one psychologist, in a conversation with a taxi driver in a taxi, said that she is also a driver, because she has a driver's license and driving experience, for some reason the driver was offended.
It is not always the people who ask, as if by the way, questions to the psychologist, understand that the answers to these questions require a more accurate understanding of the situation of the questioner, and the task is not to answer, but to help the person find this answer himself . So, the psychologist is, like the doctor, in the situation of professional activity. And the search for answers usually takes at least 45 minutes. Who from economists, programmers, representatives of other professions would agree to spontaneously provide professional services outside of working hours?
As experience shows, students entering the faculties of psychology and pedagogy and not having previously undergone special training are usually more or less guided by one or more of these myths, formulating the reasons for their professional choice. Most often the following sounds:
- "I want to better understand myself." The motive deserves respect, but, you see, it's not a profession to understand yourself.
- "I want to help people". Very dignified and beautiful, if it is said honestly. Indeed, a practical psychologist is one of those (but not the only one) who helps others. But what is behind this? Why choose psychology? After all, the priest, teacher, social worker, philanthropist, militiaman, and many others help others.
- "I want to learn to own myself."
- I want to learn to communicate better.
- "Interesting Science .
- I want to understand what my mom does. "
Asked what exactly they think the psychologist is doing, too - answers are given, very far from the reality of the profession: he writes books on psychology, explains to others what they are wrong, sits in a cozy office and listens to others for money and the like.
(See task 6 to chapter 2.)
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