NATURAL PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES
The concept of natural features of man
In our country in the early 1950's. developed and successfully developed the original direction of research of psycho-physiological characteristics of a person. It received the name differential psychophysiology and is closely related to the names of outstanding psychologists - BM Teplov and VD Nebylitsa on. The work of the Teplov-Nebylitsyn school represents a further creative development of IP Pavlov's ideas about the properties of the nervous system and the types of higher nervous activity. As is known, these ideas of Pavlov were substantiated by experiments on animals and observations in the nervous clinic. The task of the work of Teplov-Nebylitsyn and their collaborators was to study this problem in relation to man.
In differential psychophysiology, it is common to distinguish two aspects of the psyche: the content and the formal-dynamic. Thus, BM Teplov wrote that among the individual differences that are most striking in the eye are such important features as beliefs, interests, knowledge, skills, skills, and so on. all that the individual acquires as a result of interaction with the environment and that makes up the content of his psyche. But at the same time one can not help noticing that people differ in how their habits and habits are formed, how they absorb knowledge. In other words, apart from the differences related to the content side of the psychic life, people differ in some dynamic, formal features of their mental makeup and behavior (speed, pace, efficiency, sensitivity). If the content of the human psyche in its origin is socially transmitted from generation to generation only in the order of social continuity, then it is different with the formal dynamic characteristics of mental processes. The individual severity of these parameters is determined by certain natural factors, primarily the basic properties of the nervous system.By giving a definition of properties of the nervous system (SNS), BMTeplov noted that these are natural, innate features of the nervous system that affect the formation of individual behaviors and some individual differences in abilities and character.
One of the major achievements of the last decades of the XX century. in differential psychophysiology was the answer to the question, what is the origin, the genesis of the SNS. The data obtained by the laboratory team, headed by IV Ravich-Shcherbo, indicate that the properties of the nervous system can be considered as signs due to the genotype. And this means that these signs are the most stable, practically unchanged during the life of a person. In addition, we can talk about the hereditary transfer of these features.
At one time IP Pavlov believed that there are three main properties of the nervous system: strength, mobility and balance of nervous processes. The combination of the extreme poles of these properties form four combinations of nervous activity, which were identified with the four known types of temperament: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic. BMTeplov, having analyzed the development of Pavlovian ideas, came to the conclusion that there are not sufficient grounds for distinguishing four types. Only a systematic study will establish how much in fact there are basic properties of the nervous system (three or more) and in what combinations they occur. Later, as the SNA research progressed, other typological properties (lability, dynamism, activation) that were not known in Pavlov's school were discovered.
To date, the following basic SNS are known:
1) strength of the nervous system (the opposite pole - weakness of the nervous system) - is expressed in the degree of endurance, the efficiency of the nervous system, its resistance to various kinds of interference;
2) mobility of the nervous system (the opposite pole - inertia) - characterized by the rate of change of the nervous processes, as well as the speed of their movement;
3) lability of the nervous system (opposite pole - low lability or, as in the second case, inertia) - is expressed in the rate of appearance and disappearance of nervous processes;
4) dynamism (the opposite pole - low dynamism) - affects the speed of the formation of temporary neural connections;
5) Activation - is the equilibrium of the processes of excitation and inhibition; speaks of the general tone of the nervous system: high activation - predominance of excitation, low - predominance of inhibition.
Essential for the diagnosis of major SNS are:
1) each property of the nervous system as a genotypic trait has more than one manifestation, but a wide spectrum. Due to this broad spectrum, the best results in the relationship of the individual with the environment can be achieved in each individual case;
2) in relation to the SNA, the "appraisal approach" is not applicable. You can not divide properties into good and bad, useful and harmful. The properties of the nervous system characterize different ways of interaction of the organism with the environment, and not different degrees of perfection of the nervous system.
Due to the fact that the SNA are genotypic in nature and in this sense are understood as practically unchanged, stable characteristics of a person, one can not ignore them, do not pay attention to them, because their influence is perceptible in activities, behavior, relationships with others.
We should briefly dwell on some of the most important aspects of human life activity, where taking into account natural features has a certain significance.
This is primarily a learning activity. For the teacher, the differences of the students according to their formal dynamic characteristics should be of interest, since they speak of such individual characteristics as efficiency, ease of switching, pace, and the speed at which new material is assimilated. Considering the individual psycho-physiological characteristics of students, the teacher will find an appropriate approach to each of them, will tell how they would better organize their work in the classroom and at home.
The student himself must also have a correct understanding of his natural characteristics. Very often in schoolchildren who do not know how to use them correctly, i.e. understand their dignity and compensate for their shortcomings, there are defects in cognitive activity, which directly affects the performance.
In the system of vocational guidance and professional advice, in the management of professionalism formation, in professional selection, it is also very important to know the individual natural features of people. Thus, if it follows from the analysis of the content and nature of work that some SNAs are prerequisites for the formation of professionally important qualities, then it is necessary to draw the attention of a person to the presence in the chosen profession of such specific requirements. In the event that these requirements characterize the profession as a whole and are strictly regulated, a person should be informed what difficulties he may encounter and whether he has the opportunity to overcome these difficulties, given his natural features. If such requirements in the chosen profession are typical only for some "work stations", then it should be recommended that a person focus on other "work stations", where the regulation of labor behavior is not rigid.
According to KM Gurevich, success in professional activity and job satisfaction is often determined by how far the rule of "natural conformity", i.e., can be observed. as far as the range of professional tasks facing a person is close to its psychophysiological characteristics and their habitual manifestations. It is known that for a relatively inert nervous system, tasks that require a quick response to everything new in the surrounding environment are difficult, and tasks that require a quick transition from one activity to another. The rule of natural matching will be violated if a person with an inert system will master a profession, where situations often arise that require quick response or switching. When the rule of natural matching grossly violated, the probability of errors in the work increases, and its effectiveness is lost.
So, we can draw the following general conclusion: every time when in practice we have to deal with such conditions and requirements in which it is the natural formal dynamic characteristics (those, endurance, efficiency, noise immunity, sensitivity, etc.) that are an important factor in achieving professional success, moving to a higher level of mastering knowledge, skills, skills, it is necessary to have such information about a person using special diagnostic techniques.
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