Orthodox behaviorism existed only in Watson's works, as well as orthodox Freudianism - in the works of Freud. Soon it was replaced by various modifications, called neobihviorizma - operationalism, cognitivism. One of the manifestations of neobieviism was operationalization extending the bundle stimulus-reaction to a more concise notion of the operation & quot ;.
Operationalism arose among physicists who tried to order the concepts and representations that they used. According to this direction, any concept is analogous to the set of operations or procedures that determine it. Many psychologists found this principle very useful for use in psychological science and they longed to apply it. Operationalism promised to end subjectivism, to give concepts of scientific rigor. His supporters are prominent American psychologists: Tolman, Hull, Boring, Skinner, Stephen, and others.Operationalism has become a philosophical compass for reformers of behavioral psychology, among which the most significant figures were Edward Tolman (1886-1959) and Clark Hull (1884-1952).
E. Tolman is considered the founder of cognitive bi-religion. In the early 1920s, working as a psychology teacher at the University of California, Tolman enthusiastically met the Watson program.
At the same time, he understood those psychologists who saw the defects of behaviorism and considered it impossible to drive out of psychology an image, a motive and other fundamental concepts and problems. They thought about the possibility of extending the methodology of behaviorism to the aspects of mental activity that they ignored.
Tolman was the initiator of the corresponding study of the internal processes between stimulus and reaction. He proceeded from the premise that for these processes there should exist as objective indicators as they are used in studying stimuli and reactions accessible to external observation.
Tolman presented his version of behaviorism in the book "Purposeful behavior in animals and man". The concept of the goal was the main stumbling block for Watson and his followers. Tolman called his behaviorism "molar." This term was chosen to counter view of behavior as a holistic process of "molecular" Behaviorism, which treats behavior as a set of isolated motor acts.
Tolman introduced the notion of intermediate variables, which meant a set of cognitive and motivating factors acting between immediate stimuli (external and internal) and response behavior. Intermediate variables are determinants that mediate the motor reaction (dependent variable) on the stimulus (an independent variable). The independent variables also included physiological needs, heredity, previous experience and age.
According to Tolman, behavior was regulated by central determinants. The scientist believed that using the objects of the environment, the body develops in relation to them the installation, the readiness to correlate means and goals even before an open reaction is performed. It is learned not to connexions (stimuli - reactions), but the knowledge of what "what leads to". It is guided by the "matrix of values - beliefs", representing the hierarchy of expectations about objects.Tolman delivered a large number of experiments on rats, proving that it is possible to explain how they acquire labyrinth skills by using intermediate variables. So, in the process of learning, the animal showed a kind of ingenuity, solving the problem, it scheduled and tested the "hypotheses". He had expectations, attitudes and readiness to respond.
Tolman's two main laws of behaviorism, formulated by Thorndike, were re-evaluated in a new way: the law of exercise and the law of effect. The law of exercise, if interpreted as a fixation of the reaction in virtue of this more frequent repetition, in comparison with others, did not, from Tolman's point of view, have a great explanatory value. The true meaning of the exercise is not to strengthen the links between the stimulus and the motor response, but in the formation of certain cognitive structures. So, the rat learns to find in the labyrinth the path to food due to the fact that it has a "cognitive map" this way, and not a simple sum of motor skills. An animal directed towards the goal distinguishes between the signals of the environment, connecting its expectations with them. In the event that the expectation is not confirmed, the behavior changes. An animal-cognitive card, therefore, is supported by the expectation and its confirmation, and not by itself the satisfaction of an organic need.
Tolman also introduced the notion of "latent learning," which was understood as a hidden, unobservable learning, which, under certain conditions, manifested itself in action. It shows that the law of effect (assuming that without direct reinforcement of each movement by the state of satisfaction (or discomfort) it does not persist) can not claim universality. The process of learning occurs also in those cases when reinforcement is absent: the animal, as it were, examines the situation of possible action, it forms cognitive structures ("sign gestalt"), through which an optimal effect is subsequently achieved. This conclusion was based on the following experiment. The behavior in the labyrinth of different groups of rats was compared. One group regularly received food, while another as a result of repeated attempts did not find food in the food trough and received it only after 10 days. The learning curve of the second group showed that even in the period when there was no reinforcement, the animal was still trained. During this period, it examined the labyrinth, recognized the nature of the corridors in it, built cognitive structures, and therefore, receiving reinforcements, immediately made fewer mistakes.
Tolman's conclusions gave rise to the name he developed the concept of learning "cognitive" ( cognitive ). Tolman portrayed his rats as "immersed in thoughts", but he was powerless to explain, from the system of his concepts, how they still get to the feeder.
Than to explain the deep, lasting not one decade influence of its research program on the American psychology? Just like Tolman himself in the early 1920s. A relief was felt after Watson dispelled "sterile" the atmosphere of introspection, American psychologists in the early 1930s. felt relief from the "cleansing" Tolman's work, which overcame the straightforwardness of Watson's thought, which struck out of psychology its most important concepts and problems.
Another, even more influential theorist of neo-Israelism, who developed hypothetical-deductive behaviourism, was Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952).
Just like Tolman, Hull, before taking up psychology, received engineering education, which reflected in his mind's storehouse. His psychological interests moved from the problem of thinking to the study of abilities (in terms of vocational guidance), and then - hypnosis. His book "Hypnosis and suggestibility" (1933) became widely known as an outstanding attempt to study hypnotic phenomena through an objective method.
Hull proceeded from the premise that a serious psychological theory should establish general laws, from which any form of command is derived as particular cases. This means that psychology, like Euclidean geometry and Newtonian mechanics, must begin with several general postulates and theorems, deduce from them more particular positions, experimentally test them and transform them into others if they do not stand up to this test. Psychology relied on quantitative methods from the first independent steps. But to the mathematical expression of the natural connection of its facts, it went from Weber, inductively. Hull had the first attempt to construct a deductive-mathematical theory of behavior. The scientist's intention was to translate knowledge about behavior into a physico-mathematical language.
He formulated the laws of behavior - theoretical postulates that establish links between the main variables that determine behavior. The main determinant of behavior Hull considered the need, which causes the activity of the organism, its behavior. From the strength of the need, according to the scientist, the strength of the reaction (reaction potential) depends. The need determines the nature of the behavior that is different in response to different needs. The most important condition for the formation of a new connection, Hull noted, is the contiguity of the stimulus, reactions and reinforcement, which reduces the need. Thus, the scientist adopted the law of the Thorndike effect. The strength of the connection (the reaction potential) depends on the number of reinforcements and is the function of it. as well as from the postponement of reinforcement. Hull stressed the decisive role of reinforcement in the formation of new ties. He had a thorough theoretical and experimental development and a mathematical calculation of the dependence of the reaction on the nature of the reinforcement (partial, intermittent, constant), on the time of its presentation.
Hull brought Tolman closer to finding intermediate variables. Like Tolman, Hull did not reject the intrapsychic factors, and sought their available to objective control equivalents. He introduced such factors as skill force (it was considered a function of the number of trials, i.e. attempts to make a reaction), drive (need), under which was understood as the value produced from deprivation (deprivation of food, water, etc.), reinforcement, etc. Like Tolman, the "intermediate variables" Hull is something that is inaccessible to direct observation. But they are established with no less objectivity and accuracy than the physical stimuli and motor responses that are immediately fixed by the experimenter's eye.
In contrast to Tolman, Hull gave his system a high level of formalization, striving to uniquely identify each intermediate variable, including quantitatively. At the same time, the difference between the two main currents of neo-Israelism consisted not only in this. They also disagreed in the categorical orientation. Tolman's concept is commonly referred to as the "cognitive", and we saw that Tolman attached special importance to the regulation of behavior to the "cognitive" structures, abilities of the organism know how & quot ;, what leads to what and the like.
For Hall, the main determinant of behavior was the "reduction of need". In the depths of the body there is a need (food, sexual, need for sleep, activity, temperature regulation, etc.). Energizing behavior, it is discharged through external stimuli, thereby reinforcing the response that leads to its satisfaction. Gradually, the reaction potential is growing. This concept occupies a central place in the Hallian system. Thus, if Tolman tried to introduce the category of the image into the behaviourist mode of thinking, then Hull is the category of motivation.
An important innovation of Hull was the distinction between primary and secondary reinforcements. The need is always associated with irritants, the weakening of their strength, in turn, plays the role of reinforcement, but already secondary. A hungry child stops screaming when his mother takes him in his arms. In this case, the change in the position of the body in itself begins to acquire a motivational force and new skills can be developed on the basis of this acquired (secondary) reinforcement. Thus, a transition has been made from the notion that all the acquired reactions are rooted in the same basic need (for example, food), to a view that suggests that the needs themselves can change and develop.
A significant achievement of neobievioristov was the development of the problem of purposefulness of behavior, which "Watsonism" simply ignored. The term targeted behavior Tolman put in the headline of his main work. This behavior was due to cognitive abilities to construct hypotheses, to anticipate the future result, and so on. Hull also believed that the theory of behavior is obliged to include in its structure concepts that would explain such inherent signs of behavioral reactions as their controllability by expectation, intention, and the like.
Hull connected with the notion of expediency the idea of the "robot". A living machine in Hall can act expediently, change behavior according to changed conditions, be driven by original and acquired needs. Such machines are unknown to mechanics. The idea of machine-like expediency was an important innovation. She demanded to explain the role of the goal in the determination of behavior on a different basis than was accepted by the centuries, when this role was conceived only in the form in which it is inherent in conscious goal-setting and goal-setting in man.
It was in those years when Hull was thinking about the possibility to translate the concept of the goal into the language of objective psychology, new machines were created that could act "expediently". These were cybernetic machines working according to a given program. The principle underlying their work was Hull unknown. Nonetheless, the ideas that formed in the depths of neo-Israelism influenced the atmosphere in which cybernetics was born. His final work was called the "System of Behavior" (1952).
Hull worked tirelessly to give his theory a more rigorous character. Nevertheless, it gradually lost influence.
Some historians attribute this to the fact that Hull has become to some extent a victim of a passionate interest in mathematics. He used every opportunity to quantify his judgments, sometimes leading the question to the point of absurdity. Hull built the latest behaviorist macrotheory. With the collapse of the "age of theories" in American psychology is over. There are mini-systems & quot ;, i.e. concepts relating to individual processes and problems: learning, perception, emotions, personality, etc.
Another version of the concept of behavior, which includes intermediary mechanisms in the behavioral structure, is the theory of subjective or cognitive behaviorism , with which J. Miller, E. Galanter, K. Pribram spoke. This option was the harbinger of cognitive psychology, opposing orthodox behaviorism and based its ideas on the basis of the analysis of consciousness.
Under the influence of the development of computers and by analogy with the programs inherent in them, they postulated within the organism the mechanisms and processes that mediate the response to the stimulus, the reality of which is beyond doubt. As such instances, linking the stimulus and the reaction, they saw the Image and the Plan. The image is all the accumulated and organized knowledge of the organism about itself and about the world in which it exists ... using this term, we mean basically the same type of representation, which was demanded by other supporters of the cognitive theory. It includes everything that the organism has gained - its assessments along with facts - organized by means of those concepts, images or relationships that it was able to produce. " Plan - is any hierarchically constructed organism process that can control the order in which any sequence of operations is to be performed. The image is informative, and the plan is the algorithmic aspect of the organization of behavior. Supporters of the considered direction of psychology pointed to the analogies of these formations to the programs of computing computers. Behavior is regarded as a series of movements, and man - as a complex computer. The strategy of the plan is built on the basis of samples conducted in conditions created in a manner. The test (test) - is the basis of the whole process of behavior, with the help of which it becomes clear that the operating phase (operate) is performed correctly. Thus, the concept of behavior includes the idea of feedback. Each operation is preceded by a trial. The unit of behavior is described by the scheme: T-O-T-E (test-operation-test -re: (y.y; | r).
The T-O-T-E scheme states that the operations performed by the body are constantly regulated by the results of various tests. The position of subjective behaviorism reflects the general tendency in the development of behaviorism, when, in the words of the authors themselves, almost every behaviorist smuggles one or another type of invisible phenomena into his system-internal reactions, motivations, incentives, etc. so does everyone for the simple reason that without this one can not understand the meaning of behavior. "
Invisible phenomena - intermediate variables - should not be understood in the spirit of psychological concepts of subjective introspective psychology. The interpretation of them by analogy with the arrangement of computing machines can not be considered satisfactory and can be estimated as rough mechanical analogies and hypotheses, but nevertheless supporters of the analyzed direction considered them to accurately reflect the essence of behavior.
Of particular interest in the topic under consideration are the views of Burhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990), the founder of operant behaviorism
In 1931, Skinner published an article, "The Reflection Concept in Behavior Descriptions." In it, the conditioned reflex was first interpreted not as a real act of life activity inherent in itself, but as a derivative of the experimenter's operations.
In one of the works, Skinner wrote that in his entire life he had only one idea, and this idea is expressed by the term "management". He meant behavior management. The experimenter is able to cope with this task only if he controls all the variables under the influence of which the behavior of the organism develops and changes. He loses power over his object when he admits his dependence on hypothetical internal factors escaping direct observation. Therefore, only the immediately fixed functional relationships between the preceding experimentally controlled stimuli and subsequent reactions are of interest to science.
The reaction was considered by the scientist only as a derivative of the stimulus, only as a consequence, but not as a determinant that modifies the organism. An adequate formula on the interaction of the organism with the environment, Skinner wrote, should always specify three factors: 1) the event about which the reaction occurs, 2) the reaction itself, and 3) the reinforcing consequences. These relationships are incomparably more complex than the relationship between stimulus and response.
There was a transition from linear ideas about the behavior of the role of feedback in the construction of reaction forms. In this role, there was reinforcement, which selects and modifies muscle movements. Developed by Skinner and his followers, the technique of "operant conditioning" has received wide application in the USA in various areas of practice, in particular in pedagogy.
Like Watson, Skinner put forward the behavior of the organism as an object of research and, preserving the binomial scheme of his analysis, studied only his motor side. Based on experimental studies and theoretical analysis of animal behavior, Skinner formulated a position about three types of behavior: unconditioned reflex, conditioned reflex, and operant. The latter is the specificity of Skinner's teaching. The unconditionally reflex and conditioned-reflex behavior caused by stimuli (B) were called Skinner respondent, behavior-responsive, reactions of type 8. In his opinion, they formed a certain part of the behavior repertoire, but only they do not provide adaptation in the real habitat. The scientist saw the process of adapting to the under construction active of the animal's impact on the surrounding world, some of which can inadvertently result in a useful result, which is thereby fixed. Such reactions, which are not caused by stimuli, but are released ("emitted") by the body, Skinner called operant and believed that they predominate in the adaptive behavior of the animal.
With operant conditioning, a new reaction (for example, pressing a lever) is not caused by a stimulus, it is carried out at a certain point regardless of certain circumstances and, reinforced, is strengthened by the temporary pursuit of reaction and reinforcement. The difference between these two types of conditioning and the corresponding types of behavior was raised by Skinner to a principled height and brought to contrast with the conditioned, reflex and operant behavior. Operator reactions Skinner considered as active behavior.
Based on the analysis of behavior Skinner formulated his theory of learning. The main means of forming new behavior, in his opinion, was reinforcement. The entire procedure of learning in animals has been called the "sequential targeting of the desired reaction."
The data obtained in the study of animal behavior Skinner transferred to human behavior, which led to an extremely "biologic" treatment of man. Thus a Skinner variant of programmed learning emerged. In accordance with its requirements, the teaching material is divided into small portions (steps), each of which is accessible to students; every step is immediately reinforced; technical means are used for this purpose. The learning process is individualized. But the fundamental limitation of Skinner's program is to reduce learning to a set of external acts of behavior and to reinforce the right ones. At the same time, the internal cognitive activity of students is not organized and, as a consequence, education loses its specificity as a conscious process. Following the installation of Watson's behaviorism, Skinner eliminated the inner world of man, his consciousness from behavior and proclaimed the behavior of the psyche. "I am a radical behaviorist simply in the sense that I do not find in my formulations a place for what is only mentally," Skinner wrote. Behavior is what the body does and what can be observed. Such an extreme position led Skinner to the conclusion that the concepts of intellect, will, emotions, creativity, personality have no place in the scientific analysis of behavior. They are only words that denote unobservable fictions, conceal ignorance of the causes of behavior.
Mental processes were described by the scientist in terms of reactions and reinforcements, and man - as a reactive being exposed to external circumstances. Culture (literature, painting, variety art) turned out to be in his interpretation "cunningly invented reinforcements". Skinner's transformation of the concepts of freedom, responsibility, dignity meant their actual exclusion from the explanation of the real life activity of a person.
The solution to social problems was Skinner's behavioral technique, designed to control some people over others. Since the intentions, desires, and self-consciousness of a person were not taken into account, it was not the appeal to people's consciousness that was meant to control behavior, but control over the reinforcement regime that allowed people to be manipulated.
Setting to apply the principles of operant behaviorism to solving practical problems, has given this direction a wide popularity far beyond psychology. Operant techniques were used in the education of mentally retarded children, treatment of neurotics and mentally ill. In all cases, the modification of behavior is achieved by gradual reinforcement. The patient is rewarded for each action, leading step by step to the goal envisaged by the treatment scheme.
In his concept, called social behaviorism, he tried to take into account the peculiarity of the determination of human behavior by the American philosopher (1863-1931). Its proximity to behaviorism is determined by the fact that, but Mead's opinion, the psychic must be explained in terms of objectively observable behavior.
At the same time, Mead criticized two settings of the orthodox behavioral doctrine: "individualism" and "anti- mentalism" (ie, denial of the real significance of internal mental processes). He contrasted them with a clause about the initially social character of human action. "We are trying," the scientist wrote, "to explain the behavior of an individual in terms of the organized behavior of a social group. The social act is inexplicable if it is constructed from stimuli and reactions ... It must be taken as a dynamic whole, no part of which can be considered or understood by itself ... "
Mead believed that Watson's miscalculation was the reduction of the "worried world" to the neuromuscular device, whereas for the initial one, we must take the group action, having a special meaning, different from reactions such as trial and error or conditioned reflexes. Elementary forms of communication exist in animals. In humans, the body act as part of a group action turns into a "significant gesture", or symbol. The peculiarity of the expressive movement in man consists in the fact that, when it is turned to another individual in order to induce a desired reaction from him, causes in the latent form the same reaction in the person who produces it.
The content of the gesture determines the response of the addressee. But to anticipate the behavior of the addressee (after all, the gesture is made to influence this behavior), the "sender" must take his position, assume the role of this other. And at the same time, due to the fact that in the process of communication the author of the gesture has to take into account the perception of his signal by others, he begins to look at himself through the eyes of others as a social object. In communicating with others, not only is the ability to think in abstract terms, but also to recognize oneself as a special person, different from other individuals. I of a person is a product of the "social experience". This experience is initially acquired in children's games. Playing, the child as it were bifurcates: he plays various roles and thanks to this separates himself from other people and at the same time becomes on their position, learning to look at oneself from the outside. In games by the rules he perceives his individuality not only from the point of view of individuals whose roles alternately perform, but from the point of view of generalized "depersonalized" installations (norms, values) of the whole group to which he belongs.
Mead introduced the concept of generalized another> to denote these settings. In the form of a "generalized other" the external social process determines the inner world of the individual. The decisive role in the formation of the psyche Mead attached to child role behavior. Unlike Freudians, who consider the mental warehouse of a person to be a predetermined childhood trauma, he did not recognize anything primordial. The inner world of the person, her I is born in a group action. Individual consciousness is initially interpersonal. Its starting point is not introspection, but the ability of an individual to look at himself "from the side of", perceive himself as an object for the "generalized other", emerging in communication with others.
These explanatory principles were novel in comparison with the theoretical schemes that gravitated over the minds of American psychologists (both behaviorists and non-analysts). Theoretical innovations of Mead have switched the analysis of individual behavior into the channel of revealing its dependence on sociogenic rather than biogenic factors.
In American psychology 1950-1960's. there arose a strong movement for the translation of Mead's ideas from speculative, philosophical language to empirical. It was reflected in the summary work of "Human behavior and social processes", as well as in the book of T. Shibutani "Society and Personality" (in the United States translation - "Social Psychology").
From the point of view of Meade, human thought and behavior are purely social. People acquire their human nature through communication - they interact with symbols, the most important of which are contained in the language. Symbols indicate not only an object or event, but also a certain reaction, expressed in the corresponding social actions of people, and also act as a means by which people can communicate meaningfully.
Mead was one of the first to point out the complex, dual nature of a person's personality, exploring in detail the origin of the self. Note that the sociologist distinguished two aspects of the genesis of the self: the first - "I" (corresponds to English "I") - spontaneous, internal, subjective representation of the individual by himself; second - I (corresponds to English "Mc") - generalized representations of others, which are assimilated by the individual. I in the sense of Me - this is how people see themselves, but through the eyes of others. Me - the result of the influence of social groups in the form of norms and standards on the individual. In real life, the consciousness and behavior of a person is determined both by the self-perception of the individual and by the way he interprets the reactions to him of others.Unlike Skinner, who almost always believed that teaching was possible only through direct experience, the main acceptance on the role of learning through observation in the acquisition of behavioral skills was done by Albert Bandura (1925- 1988), who developed a social-cognitive theory of personality.
The scientist argued that learning would be rather difficult, if not to say ineffective and potentially dangerous, if it depended solely on the result of our own actions. Suppose a motorist would have to rely only on immediate consequences (for example, collision with another car, hitting a pedestrian) in order to learn not to go to the red light. Fortunately, verbal communication of information and observation of appropriate models (for example, other people) provides the basis for acquiring the most complex forms of human behavior. Bandura established that virtually all learning phenomena acquired as a result of direct experience can be formed indirectly, by observing the behavior of others and its consequences. Thus, ignoring the role of learning through observation in acquiring new behaviors (patterns of behavior) means ignoring the person's unique abilities.
The key to the problem is the observation factor. Watching, children learn - no matter whether it gives them pleasure or not - to do their daily homework or play certain games. Also, through observation, they can learn to be aggressive, altruistic, sympathetic or even rude. In many cases, it is necessary to learn the simulated behavior precisely in the way that it is performed. Riding a bicycle, skateboarding, typing, for example, allow very little, if at all, depart from the existing practice. However, in addition to the transfer of specific forms through modeling, new behavior can be constructed. If the child has learned to share his favorite dish with a doll, he will not be difficult to share toys with peers, give attention to a small brother, help his mother in the household, etc. With the help of modeling processes, observers derive common features from seemingly different reactions and formulate rules of behavior that enable them to go beyond what they have already seen or heard. Indeed, learning through observation can lead to a style of behavior quite different from what a person observed in reality.
From the view of Pandora, people form the cognitive image of a particular behavioral response through observing the behavior of the model, and then this encoded information (stored in long-term memory) serves as a guide to their actions. He believed that people are free from the burden of unnecessary mistakes and wasting time on the formation of appropriate reactions, since they can, at least approximately, learn something by example. Thus, for example, a person who carefully observed the experienced genneppepst. will have a mental image of a good ball. When he learns to serve the ball, he will combine his attempt with the mental image of the ball by a specialist.
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