Neurohumoral regulation of behavior, Regulating role of endocrine...

Neurohumoral regulation of behavior

The regulating role of the endocrine and nervous systems in the living body

In the process of evolution, in the most beneficial position were the beings who had the perfect system of commands governing the body. Any partially complementary systems gave their carriers advantages in cruel prehistoric conditions. Currently, all higher organisms have complementary systems of regulation of functions. An example is the endocrine and nervous systems that regulate the vital vital functions of the body.

The principle of the nervous system is based on the transformation of external stimuli into electrochemical impulses and then into the response of the organism. The activity of all the endocrine glands since their inception was not autonomous, but was regulated by the central nervous system along nerve conductors by products of neurosecretion or by the hormones of other endocrine glands, the excretion of which into the blood occurred as a result of nerve impulses. Therefore, talking about independent hormonal regulation, independent of the nervous, is completely incorrect.

In all multicellular animals, beginning with the lowest worms, the central nervous system regulates and integrates all the functions of the body. The nervous system provides the response of the whole organism to all the effects of the external or internal environment that cause irritation of the receptors. However, the effects of the central nervous system on effectors can be carried out in two ways: by transmitting excitation pulses along the efferent nerves (the neuro-conductor pathway) and by introducing hormones and other physiologically active substances (humoral pathway) into the blood or lymph.

Considering the features of the life of the animal's organism, including the nervous regulation of functions, we see that some parts of the nervous system (the brain) have additional functions, highlighting hormones - substances that have physiological activity and regulate a number of body functions, for example, the activity of the thyroid glands, gonads, etc. This is the most evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain, which include the pituitary and hypothalamus, which are simultaneously part of the endocrine system. The first cells with secretory activity are presently found in all invertebrates and vertebrates. Some metabolic products of the nerve cell, the so-called neurosecret, have acquired a signal character and assumed regulatory functions. At the same time, certain groups of nerve cells specialized in developing neurotransmitter mediators.

Interaction with the environment and living organisms is often carried out through the hormonal regulation system. So, for example, special substances called pheromones, intensively released by females into the environment during estrus, affect the individuals of their species, attracting the male to the female, ready for reproduction. Males of some species, in order to smell the female, it is enough to have several molecules of pheromone per cubic meter of air.

The glands of internal secretion are formed by accumulations of glandular epithelium, permeated with a large number of blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve endings. The hormones they release have a regulating effect on certain tissues or organs. To carry out the action of the hormone, it is necessary to fulfill the following conditions: synthesis of the hormone, its activation (maturation), delivery to the place works and presence in target organs or tissues of target cells with specific receptors of a given hormone.

The regulatory activity of endocrine glands is expressed in their mutual influence, on the target organs, and also in the antagonistic action of certain hormones on the functions of target organs. At the moment, there are over fifty such regulators that ensure the normal functioning of the body.

The activity of endocrine glands is subject to rhythmic fluctuations, both daily and seasonal, reflecting the adaptability to the existence of this species in a certain ecological niche. Widely known fluctuations in the activity of the sexual glands in connection with cycles of reproduction or thyroid gland in connection with adaptation to winter conditions. Experimentally shown and the existence of rhythms associated with the phases of the moon. The cyclicity of biological processes ensures the maximum efficiency of the organism and is also provided by cyclic changes in the activity of the endocrine system. Such a periodicity in the growth of the level of certain hormones in the blood contributes to the formation in the central nervous system of foci of excitation - dominant, instinctive behavior.

The activity of the endocrine system varies throughout life from the stage of the formation of the secretory function of the gland, which is formed depending on the gland or in the embryonic period (pituitary gland), or later (the sexual glands), through the stage of full-fledged functioning to gradual extinction.

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