Non-associative learning, Associative learning - Zoopsychology...

Non-associative learning

Non-associative training consists in weakening the response to the stimulus when it is repeatedly presented. Any unfamiliar object at the first meeting causes the animal an orienting reaction, which eventually fades. This is due to the most primitive form of learning - habituation.

Addictive is the most elementary individually developed reaction to reduce excitability. It arises with repeated repetition of a certain stimulus that does not threaten the body with significant consequences, and consists in a gradual, rather stable weakening of the reaction itself or a decrease in the frequency of its appearance, until it completely disappears. In other words, the animal learns not to react to an irritant that does not harm it or does not bring benefits. For example, a person living in close proximity to the railway soon completely stops responding to the noise of passing trains, although at first they noticeably irritate him and prevent him from sleeping. We get used to the ticking of the clock, to the noise of running water, to billboards and signboards. These stimuli cease to reach our consciousness. For us, accustoming means the emergence of a state where we easily recognize the stimuli that we constantly have to face; perceiving these stimuli as quite ordinary phenomenon, we ignore them.

Accustomedness exists in almost all living beings: from the simplest to the inclusive. It ensures the adequacy of the reactions of the organism, eliminating all unnecessary, unnecessary, not bringing tangible benefits of the reaction, without affecting only the most necessary, which saves a lot of energy. The animal is able to tolerate almost any of the impacts with which it meets daily on its territory, and not respond to them with either orientation or defensive reactions, to adapt to fellow herds and to limit their reactions arising in their presence, only really necessary. Due to habituation, standardization of social behavior of any animal community occurs, which simultaneously leads to an aggravation of the perception of the most important key incentives.

Associative Learning

In associative learning in the central nervous system, a temporary relationship is formed between two stimuli, one of which was originally indifferent to the animal, and the other served as a reward or punishment, i.e. the formation of a conditioned reflex occurs. In psychology, this process is called conditioning.

Conditional reflexes are significantly different from the individual adaptive addictive reactions described above. In most animals, they can be formed into any stimulus, for the perception of which the body has appropriate receptors. The elaboration of conditioned reflexes occurs when a combination of indifferent and unconditioned stimuli is combined with the obligatory precedence of the first (for more details on the conditions for generating conditioned reflexes, see Chapter 3). A very important feature of conditioned reflexes is their ability to fade when there is no reinforcement. That is why physiologists often call them "temporary connections".

The biological significance of the ability to forget is very great - a living organism has absolutely nothing to keep in memory events and phenomena that it does not face at the moment, and thus overload the central nervous system. At the same time, the conditioned reflexes worked out once are easily recalled by the animals in the restoration of the situation that led to their occurrence. Thus, they have high stability, and in higher animals they can survive a lifetime, unless, of course, there are serious reasons for their complete elimination.

Conditioned reflexes are a vast class of reactions. There are many principles for their classification:

• by the modality of the conditioned stimulus (visual, auditory, olfactory, dermal, etc.);

• by the nature of the animal's response (motor or secretory),

• in terms of biological meaning (food, defense, sex),

• by the method of formation (conditioned reflexes of the first, second, third and higher orders, imitation conditioned reflexes, etc.);

• by the time characteristics of the conditioned reflexes (cash and trace) formed.

In addition, there are conditioned reflexes developed for simple stimuli and for various types of complex stimuli, natural - for natural signs of objects (for example, for the smell of food) and artificial reflexes for random signs (for example, strumming bowls), classical, instrumental and others

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