Non-traditional forms of group development group
Non-traditional forms of group development work with schoolchildren differ from training and correctional-developing work by organization and content. Such forms include educational psychodiagnostics and general school psychological programs.
Teaching psycho-diagnostics - is group testing, psychological education and group counseling. These events can be held both on the classroom hours, and during after-hours. It should be noted that requests for these events come from both teachers and senior students.
The diagnostic material used can be diverse in content: these are methods for studying personality traits and interpersonal relationships, and vocational guidance techniques, etc. The data obtained during the training psychodiagnostics are very informative and can be used in compiling correctional-development programs (trainings), during consultations.
General psychological programs are psychological olympiads, contests, competitions and school games of psychological content, a psychological club for children, various actions and other activities that a psychologist can develop himself depending on the request.
The purpose of the psychological Olympiad is to attract the maximum number of students to the formulation and resolution of psychological problems. The Olympics take place in several rounds. Initially, this is not a competitive, but a development event, so the questions of the first round are posted a few days before the competition. It is desirable that the content of the questions be fascinating: to decipher the meaning of gestures and poses, to come up with different types of people according to the proposed criterion, etc. In the second round, psychological observation, imagination, etc. are checked.
Psychological competitions and competitions orient students to demonstrate their psychological abilities, cognitive functions (memory, attention, imagination, etc.), self-control and self-control, interpersonal skills, etc. A multistage selection of participants is desirable: first inside the class, then inside the parallel, and finally between the parallels.
Psychological games involve the inclusion of the whole school in a certain psychological activity for a more or less long period. An example of such a game can serve as a one-two-day game "Rainbow". Its content is associated with the use of color diagnostics. In the morning, at the entrance to the school, all pupils and teachers were asked to determine their mood with the help of color and drop a square of the corresponding color into the common urn. There are two urns: one for students, another for teachers. Choose from several fixed colors (you can take four to five primary colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray). During the school day after the data processing, the results are displayed in the form of a diagram. At the end of the training, the same procedure is carried out, and the evening results are hung out and everyone compares the morning and evening data.
Individual work of a psychologist
Individual work includes psychological counseling and psychotherapy.
Psychological counseling - is a special field of practical psychology aimed at providing psychological counselor with direct psychological help in the form of advice and recommendations. At the heart of such help lie the personal conversation of the psychologist with his ward and a preliminary study of the problem. The advice and recommendations offered by a counselor psychologist are designed so that a person who needs help can use them himself.
The main goals psychological counseling are the following.
1. Providing a person with operational assistance in solving problems that have arisen with him. Sometimes people have situations that require urgent help from a psychologist. Such consultations are called operational.
2. Providing a person with assistance in resolving those issues with which he could quite cope on his own, but nevertheless needs a common-sense council based on common sense.
3. Providing temporary assistance to a person who needs a long and constant impact, but for some reason can not afford it. Help in this case will be prompt.
4. Assisting a person who has an idea of how to behave in a difficult situation, but doubts the correctness of the decision. In this case, he receives professional and moral support, with the help of a psychologist his faith in himself is strengthened.
5. Providing a person with assistance in the case when there is no other way to get advice from him.
Tasks psychological counseling are as follows:
• Clarification (clarification) of the problem the client encountered;
• informing the client about the essence of the problem that has arisen, the real degree of its seriousness (problematic information);
• study of the client's personality by the counselor psychologist in order to find out whether he can cope with the problem on his own;
• Clear formulation of advice and recommendations to the client on how to best solve his problem;
• Providing current help to the client in the form of additional practical advice offered at the time when he has already started solving his problem;
• teaching the client how in the future it is best to prevent the occurrence of such problems (psycho-prophylactic program);
• transfer to the client of elementary, vital psychological knowledge and skills, development and proper use of which is possible by the client's own forces without special psychological preparation.
Most often the psychologist is addressed by people who make up the middle class of the population, representatives of professions related to mental work. It can be people who are not very well adapted to life, having some kind of emotional deviations, which are the result of multiple life frustrations and frustrations. A person goes to see a psychologist when he does not know what to do in a particular situation, or is in a state of mental distress, or he thinks that something terrible is happening to him and his family.
The reasons why a person turns to a counseling psychologist are as follows:
1) he knows how to solve the problem, but is looking for emotional support;
2) he knows what to do, but he needs a professional advice;
3) he does not know which way to choose to solve the problem;
4) he just needs to talk with someone (most often they are single people).
Types of psychological counseling:
1) intimate-personal counseling is consultation, during which a person decides the deep personal
problems (discontent with yourself and your life, problems of intimate relationships, etc.);
2) Family counseling is advising on issues related to family relations (optimal building and regulation of family relationships, prevention and resolution of conflicts in family relationships, etc.);
3) psychological and pedagogical counseling is aimed at solving the problems of the upbringing and education of children;
4) business counseling, during which business problems are solved (choice of profession, work organization, business negotiations, etc.).
Psychological counseling differs from other types of practical psychological help in that during counseling the psychologist basically gives advice, and their practical implementation is the business of the client; the main psychocorrectional work is carried out by the client independently, without the help of a psychologist; psychodiagnostics is minimized, mainly monitoring the behavior of the client; the psychologist-consultant is not responsible for the final result, but is responsible only for the correctness of his conclusions about the essence of the client's problem and for the potential effectiveness of the proposed practical recommendations.
Psychotherapy can be either individual or group. The psychologist plays an active role in relieving the client of problems, since it is he who is taking the necessary actions. It requires direct personal communication between the client and the psychologist.
The psychologist is directly responsible for the final result of his work, as he is engaged in correcting the psychology and behavior of the client.
A psychotherapist engaged in practical correction is obliged to professionally master psychotherapeutic methods, as in their application is the bulk of his work.
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